The Perfect Soldier: Special Operations, Commandos, and the Future of Us Warfare by James F. Dunnigan
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Dirty Little Secrets
Russian Heavy Bombers Back In Business
Discussion Board on this DLS topic
by James Dunnigan
October 15, 2006
Russia recently conducted its first large scale heavy bomber exercises since the end of the Cold War. Some fifty Tu-160s, Tu-95MSs and Tu-22Ms were involved. Since 1991, most Russian heavy bombers have been kept on the ground. But in the last few years, a force of bombers was refurbished. This including getting some Tu-160s back from Ukraine (because half of the 36 Tu-160s built were stationed in Ukraine when the Soviet Union was dissolved, and thus belonged to Ukraine). Only about fourteen Tu-160s are still operational, plus about fifty Tu-22Ms and about the same number of Tu-95s. Exact numbers are not available on the Tu-22Ms and Tu-95s, because both of these aircraft serve other functions (reconnaissance, electronic warfare). Their ability to perform as heavy bombers depends on the current state of crew training and maintenance. Most of these aircraft are at least twenty years old, and spare parts are sometimes difficult to get.
During the recent exercises, the bombers flew missions over the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic oceans as well as the Black and Caspian seas. Some of the aircraft actually fired cruise missiles, and others just simulated that, as well as practice bombing runs.
The Tu-95MS is a propeller driven aircraft, most often used for naval reconnaissance. As a heavy bomber, it is a 180 ton aircraft that can carry 15 tons of bombs and missiles. It has a combat radius of over 5,000 kilometers. Actually, it's total range of 15,000 kilometers enables it to reach just about anywhere on the planet, if is uses in-flight refueling.
The Tu-22M Serves with both the Russian Air Force and Navy. It's a 112 ton aircraft that can carry 25 tons of bombs and missiles. It has a normal combat radius of 2,500 kilometers. Not exactly a strategic bomber, as it had its in-flight refueling capability removed because of a disarmament treaty. But because Russia is so large, with air bases all over the place, the Tu-22M can show up over the Atlantic or Pacific. It's also one of the most reliable Russian bombers in service.
The Tu-160 Blackjack is very similar to the U.S. B-1, but never really lived up to its potential. Still, it is the most modern heavy bomber the Russians have. It's a 267 ton aircraft, that can carry up to 40 tons of bombs and missiles, for up to 12,000 kilometers. The aircraft can refuel in the air. It originally entered service in 1987, and was built to deliver cruise missiles. Noting the success of the B-1 in Afghanistan and Iraq with smart bombs, the Tu-160s were modified to do the same, in addition to retaining their cruise missile carrying capability.
Currently. Tu-160 and Tu-95MS heavy bombers are equipped to carry a dozen Kh-555 cruise missiles each. These missiles are upgrades of the Cold War era AS-15 nuclear cruise missile. The Kh-555 is 20 feet long, weighs 1.5 tons and has a range of 3,000 kilometers. An 800 pound conventional warhead appears to be a cluster bomb type (carrying bomblets). The missile uses inertial and satellite supplied guidance, and can hit within 100 meters of its aiming point. Russia says it will use these missiles to attack terrorist bases in foreign countries.