Six XM-25 grenade launchers have been delivered to the U.S. Army for troop
testing. So far, the troops have been very enthusiastic about the new weapon.
The XM-25 was originally one of two weapons (the other being a 5.56mm rifle)
incorporated in the 18 pound XM-29 OICW. The OICW was originally developed as a
replacement for the 40mm grenade launcher. The 40mm rounds weigh 19 ounces each,
the 20mm OICW round weighs half that. There were several major problems with the
OICW. It was too heavy and ungainly, and the 20mm "smart shell" it fired did not
appear capable of effectively putting enemy troops out of action. So, in August,
2003, it was decided to take the 5.56mm portion of the OICW and develop it as a
separate weapon (the XM-8) and develop the grenade launcher part that fired the
"smart shell" as the XM-25. But the XM-25 would use a 25mm shell, which would
generate 50 percent more fragments (and heavier ones at that) than the 20mm
shell of the OICW.
The 20mm and 25mm "smart shells" use a computer
controlled fuze in each shell. The M-25 operator can select four different
firing modes via a selector switch on the weapon. The four modes include
"Bursting" (airburst). For this to work, the soldier first finds the target via
the weapons sighting system. The sight includes a laser range finder and the
ability to select and adjust the range shown in the sight picture. For an air
burst, the soldier aims at an enemy position and fires a round. The shell is
optimized to spray incapacitating (wounding or killing) fragments in a roughly
six meter radius from the exploding round. Thus if enemy troops are seen moving
near trees or buildings at a long distance (over 500 meters), the weapon has a
good chance of getting them with one shot. M-16s are not very accurate at that
range, and the enemy troops will dive for cover as soon as M-16 bullets hit
around them. With smart shells, you get one (or a few) accurate shots and the
element of surprise.
The other modes are "PD" (point detonation, where
the round explodes on contact), PDD (point detonation delay, where the round
detonates immediately after it has gone through a door, window or thin wall) and
"Window", which is used for firing at enemy troops in a trench, behind a stone
wall or inside a room. The round detonates just beyond the aiming
buildings, this would be a window or door frame, cave entrance or the corner of
a building (to get enemy troops thought to be around the corner.)
XM25 is still a heavy weapon, with the final version coming in at nearly 18
pounds. The 25mm shells weigh over half a pound each. On the plus side, there is
already a 25mm armor piercing round (using a shaped charge capable of
penetrating over 50mm of armor) available. This makes the M-25 capable of
knocking out light armored vehicles.
The U.S. Army has fired over 30
million 25mm shells from the cannon on its M-2 Bradley armored vehicles and was
satisfied with the lethality of that shell against infantry. One of the new
options with the XM-25 25mm round is a fuel-air explosive (or "thermobaric").
Such a shell would cause greater blast effect in an enclosed space, and actually
suck most of the oxygen out of a cave or closed room long enough to make
surviving troops at least a bit groggy. This gives the attacking troops an
opportunity to rush in and kill the enemy, or take prisoners. In combat, every
little advantage helps.
The XM-25 maybe be ready for combat testing later
this year. It will probably show up in Afghanistan and Iraq for that. Given the
fanaticism of some of the al Qaeda fighters found in both places, this will
prove if the "smart shell" is lethal as well.