421    Constantius III becomes Co-Roman Emperor in the West (Feb 8-Sep 2, 421), d. natural causes
1250    Battle of Mansura: Crusader crossbowmen defeat Mamluke cavalry, but lose to Baibars anyway
1676    Fyodor II Romanov becomes Tsar of Russia (1676-1682)
1690    French troops burn Indian settlement at Schenectady
1743    Battle of Campo Santa: Austrians block Spanish from reinforcing the French in northern Italy
1799    Cardinal Ruffo & 5,000 troops land in Calabria to free Naples from the French
1807    Battle of Eylau, Day 2: Napoleon defeats the Russo-Prussians
1849    Italian liberals proclaim a "Republic of Rome"
1862    Battle of Roanoke Is: US gains control of Pamlico Sound
1865    Martin Delany becomes first black major in the US Army:
1918    "The Stars and Stripes" begins publication in France
1923    The Nazi Party newspaper "Volkischer Beobachter" becomes a daily
1942    Bataan: Philippine troops clear Japanese troops holding Quinauan Point.
1942    Celebes: Japanese land at Makassar.
1942    Malaya: Japanese begin crossing the Strait of Johore, to land on Singapore Island.
1942    NY's Mayor La Guardia forms the paramilitary "City Patrol Corps" to improve wartime security
1943    Burma: Orde Wingate's Chindits begin raid against the Japanese
1943    Red Army liberates Kursk
1944    Burma: Stilwell reports a major Japanese offensive is imminent.
1945    Philippines: Japanese resistance in Manila stiffens.
1949    Communists give Hungarian Cardinal Mindszenty a life sentence
1955    USSR Premier Georgy Malenkov (1953-1955) is replaced by Nikolai Bulganin (1955-1958), and is sent to manage a hydroelectric plant
1968    Orangeburg Massacre: Highway Patrol Officers fire on anti-segregation demonstrators near South Carolina State University, 3 die, 28 wounded
1974    Military coup is crushed in Upper Volta.

412    St Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople, d. c. 446
1191    Grand Prince Yaroslav II of Vladimir (1238-1246)
1291    King Afonso IV of Portugal (1325-57)
1405    Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos (1449-1453), kia, The Last Emperor -- Learn More
1487    Duke Ulrich of Württemberg (1498-1550)
1552    Théodore-Agrippa d'Aubigné, French Huguenot soldier-poet, d. 1630
1577    Beatrice Cenci, Roman noblewoman, executed 1599 for murdering her father, who raped her
1712    Joseph de Montcalm, French general, KIA, Quebec, 1759
1783    Charles-Marie, comte Denys de Damrémont, French general, kia Algeria, 1837
1811    Edwin Denison Morgan, Gov of NY, Maj Gen, US, d. 1883
1817    Richard Stoddert Ewell, Lt Gen, C.S.A., d. 1872
1820    William Tecumseh Sherman, Gen., US, who knew that "War is hell", d. 1891
1824    Barnard Elliot Bee, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia 1861, dubbing Jackson "Stonewall"
1828    Jules Verne, visionary author ("20,000 Leagues Under the Sea", etc.), d. 1905
1828    Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, d. 1897, assassinated by an anarchist during his fifth term as premier of Spain
1892    Fritz Todt, head of Hitler's construction service, d. at 50, air crash, this date in 1942 - Learn More
1960    Benigno Aquino III, President of the Philippines (2010-)

1204    Emperor Alexius IV Angelus of Byzantium (1203-04), 22, murdered
1250    Fakhr ad-Din, Ayyubid commander, & Robert of Artois, Crusader leader, kia, Mansura
1296    King Przemys II of Poland (June 26, 1295-Feb 8, 1296), murdered at 38
1529    Baldassare Castiglione, diplomat, soldier, "the finest gentleman in the world," b. 1478
1587    Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1567), beheaded by her cousin Elizabeth of England
1676    Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, 44, the first Romanov Tsar (1636-1676)
1725    Tsar Peter I the Great of Russia (1682-1725), at 52
1740    Pope Clement XII - Lorenzo Corsini - (1730-40), at 87
1921    Prince Peter Kropotkin, anarchist, at 78
1932    Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, 23, killed by the Dutch Schultz mob to protect the NYC DA
1959    William J. Donovan, MoH, of the 'Fighting 69th' & OSS, at 76 -- Learn More
1963    Abdul Karim Kassem, PM of Iraq (1958-63), assassinated in Baghdad at 48