371BC Battle of Leuctra: Epaminondas of Thebes defeats Cleombrotus I of Sparta -- Learn More
83BC Devastating fire destroys the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome
432    Consecration of Pope St. Sixtus III (432-440)
1266    Norway cedes Man and the Hebridies to Scotland
1322    Battle of the Bassignana: The Visconti defeat their enemies
1348    Pope Clement VII's first condemnation of violence against Jews by those blaming them for the Plague
1483    Coronation of England's King Richard III, Aug 22,1485
1495    Battle of Foronovo: French King Charles VIII defeats the Italian League
1553    Mary I ascends the throne of England (1553-1558)
1560    Treaty of Edinburgh: Scotland abandons its French ties to ally with England
1641    Battle of Sedan: Imperialists defeat the French
1652    Netherlands declares war on England: First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-54)
1685    Battle of Sedgemoor: King James II defeats his nephew the Duke of Monmouth
1699    Capt William Kidd arrested in Boston
1758    Carlo Della Torre Rezzonico elected Pope as Clement XIII (1758-1769)
1777    Burgoyne's British & Hessians capture Fort Ticonderoga
1782    Battle of Negapatam: Indecisive Anglo-French naval clash off India
1785    Congress introduces the US Dollar
1801    First Naval Battle of Algeciras: Franco-Spanish squadron defeats the British
1809    Battle of Wagram, Day 2: Napoleon defeats the Austrians -- Learn More
1861    Skirmish at Middle Creek Fork/Buckhannon, WVa
1862    Battle of Devall's Bluff, AR
1863    Battle of Williamsport/Hagerstown/Falling Waters Line, Md begins (to Jul 14)
1864    Jubal Early's Rebs capture Hagerstown, Maryland
1898    US Auxiliary Cruiser 'Dixie' captures three Spanish merchantmen
1911    First naval air station established, Annapolis, MD.
1917    T.E. Lawrence and the Arab Army capture Aqaba
1937    Battle of Brunete: Spanish Republicans open offensive (defeated by 26th)
1940    HM destroyer 'Griffen' is attacked in the English Channel by 36 Dornier bombers, suffers no casualties and only minor damage from near misses
1942    German troops capture Voronez, USSR
1942    The Frank family seeks shelter in the After house, Amsterdam
1943    Kula Gulf: USS 'Helena' (CL-50) lost to "Tokyo Express," which loses a destroyer
1943    U.S. ships begin periodic shelling of Japanese positions on Kiska
1945    Movement to the US of captured German scientists and equipment begins
1945    President Truman establishes the Medal of Freedom
1967    Biafran War erupts as Nigerian forces invade secessionist province
1976    Women are admitted to the U.S. Naval Academy for the first time
1985    USS 'Nautilus' (SSN-571) arrives at Groton, Ct., to become a museum
1987    Sikh extremists begin a series of massacres in India
1989    Col. Oliver North convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and ordering the destruction of documents, in the Iran-Contra Scandal; later vacated
1998    Anti-Catholic rioting in Northern Ireland

1747    John Paul Jones, American naval officer, Russian admiral, who would go "in harm's way", d. 1792
1781    Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore, d. July 5, 1826
1796    Tsar Nicholas I of Russia (1825-55)
1814    Justus McKinstry, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
1821    Edward Winston Pettus, Brig Gen, C.S.A. d. 1907
1832    Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, sometime Emperor of Mexico (1862-1867), executed 1867
1892    Baron Willy Coppens de Houthulst, Belgian WW I ace, d. 1986
1909    Andrei Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minister (1957-1985), d. 1989
1918    Eugene List, noted concert pianist & the GI who played for the "Big Three" at Potsdam, d. 1985
1923    Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski, Polish soldier, Communist Party head (1981-1989), Premier (1985-1989), President (1989-1990), d. 2014
1946    George W. Bush, Air Guardsman, President (2001-2009)

1187    200 Christian knights captured at Hattin, murdered by Saladin
1189    King Henry II of England (1154-89), at 56
1415    Jan Hus, c. 42, burned for heresy, Constance, Germany
1535    Sir Thomas More, 56, beheaded in England for treason, later canonized
1553    King Edward VI Tudor of England (1547-53) at 15, tuberculosis
1849    Geoffredo Mameli, Italian nationalist, soldier-composer ("Fratelli d'Italia"), d/w at 21 -- Learn More
1893    Guy de Maupassant, 42, Volunteer of 1870, author ("Ball of Fat")
1918    John Purroy Mitchel, 38, sometime Mayor of New York (1914-1918), US Army Air Service, air crash
1975    Otto Skorzeny, 72, Nazi special operations wiz
2009    Robert Strange McNamara, 93, sometime US SecDef, engineer of a disastrous military policy