878    Battle of Edington: King Alfred the Great of Wessex defeats the Danes, imposing peace
1430    The Burgundians capture Joan of Arc, for the English
1475    Battle of Neuss: The Burgundians defeat the Imperialists
1493    Peace of Senlis: The Holy Roman Emperor & the King of France arrange disposal of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy
1533    King Henry VIII invalidates his marriage to Catherine of Aragon
1555    Giovanni Pietro Caraffa elected Pope as Paul IV (1555-1559)
1618    The Second Defenestration of Prague: initiates the Thirty Years' War
1660    King Charles II returns to England from exile in the Netherlands
1706    Battle of Ramillies: Marlborough defeats French
1809    Battle of Aspern-Essling, Day 2: Austrians draw with Napoleon
1859    Garibaldi and the 'Cacciatori del Alpi" occupy Varese and Sesto Calende, in Lombardy
1861    White Virginian men vote 3 to 1 for secession - a month after the state has already seceded
1862    Valley Campaign - Battle of Front Royal: Stonewall Jackson captures the town
1864    Battle of North Anna River/Totopotamy River/Haw's Shop/Hanovertown, Va: Three day fight begins
1865    Grand Review of the Union Army begins in Washington, DC
1878    German ironclad 'Konig Wilhelm' rams & sinks ironclad 'Grosser Kurfurst'
1911    The New York Public Library opens its main building, on Fifth Avenue
1915    Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary
1928    Bomb attack on Italian embassy in Buenos Aires, 22 die
1939    USS 'Squalus" (SS-192) sinks off Portsmouth, NH; 26 die, but 33 are rescued next day
1945    German island of Helgoland in North Sea surrenders to the Royal Navy
1945    The Allies dissolve the "Dönitz Government," and abolish German sovereignty
1958    Mao Tse-tung starts "the Great Leap Forward" in China, millions die
1960    Israel announces the capture of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in Argentina
2014    Maniac goes beserk in Isla VIsta, California, kills six by knife or gunfire and 13 are injured before he kills himself

635    K'inich Kan B'alam II, King of Baakal (684-702)
779    Li Yu, 52, the Emperor Daizong of Tang (762-779)
1052    Philip I "the Amorous", King of the Franks (1060-1108),
1579    The Dutch Republic, formed by the Protestant provinces of the Netherlands at the Union of Utrecht
1735    Charles-Joseph Lamoral, Prince de Ligne, Belgian-born Habpsburg Field Marshal and military thinker, d. 1814
1790    Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville, French naval officer and explorer, d. 1842
1813    Mason Brayman, Bvt Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1895
1824    Ambrose E. Burnside, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1881
1837    James Sanks Brisbin, Bvt Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1892
1843    Hans Heinrich XIV, Graf von Hochberg, Freiherr zu Fürstenstein, composer, diplomat, d. 1926
1873    Canada's North West Mounted Police
1957    Princess Caroline of Monaco

230    Pope St Urban I (222-230)
1002    Otto III, King of the Germans (983-1002), Holy Roman Emperor (996-1002), at 21
1498    Girolamo Savonarola, 45, radical preacher, barbecued in Florence
1516    King Ferdinand II of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia, and Navarre, Count of Barcelona, (1479-1516), King of Sicily (1468-1516), of Naples (1504-1516), King-Consort of Castile (1474-1504), Regent of Castile (1508-1516), 63 - widower of Isabella of Spain, co-patron of Columbus, skinflint -- Learn More
1524    Shah Isma'il Abu'l-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd Safawi -- Shah Isma'il I of Persia (1502-1524), 37, Founder of the Safavid Empire
1570    James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, c. 40, Regent of Scotland (1567-1570), assassinated
1701    Captain William Kidd, c. 55, New York-based entrepreneur, and 3 henchmen, hanged in London
1831    Ciro Menotti, 31, Italian patriot, executed at Modena
1868    Kit Carson, 58, scout, Brig Gen, U.S.
1917    Queen Ranavalona III of Madagascar (1883-1897), 55, deposed by the French, in exiled in Algeries
1920    Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna, 63, Croatian Austro-Hungarian Field Marshal, Commander of the Italian Front, 1915-1918, d. 23 May 1920
1934    Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (23) and Clyde Barrow (24), ambushed by police after a three year killing spree
1940    Gaston-Henri Billotte, 65, French solder, Commander, First Army Group, of injuries from an auto accident
1945    Heinrich Himmler, 44, Nazi, suicide
2012    Paul Fussell, 88, who earned a Bronze Star and two Purple Hearts in the ETO, historian ("The Great War in Modern Memory")