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TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
58BC Caesar reaches Geneva, to begin the conquest of Gaul
47BC Battle of the Nile: Caesar & Pharnaces defeat an Egypto-Optimate Army
19BC Triumph of Lucius Cornelisu Balbus the Younger, for victories in Africa; the last triumph held for anyone not a member of the imperial family
1555    Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi elected Pope as Marcellus II (Mar 27-May 6 1555)
1599    Elizabeth names her favorite, the Earl of Essex, Lt-Gen of Ireland
1625    Charles I ascends the English and Scottish thrones, deposed and executed 1649
1794    Congress approves construction of 6 frigates, including USS 'Constitution'
1799    USS 'Constitution' recaptures the American sloop 'Neutrality' from the French
1802    Treaty of Amiens: Wars of the French Revolution end
1814    Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Andrew Jackson defeats the Creeks
1863    Confederate President Jefferson Davis declares a day of fasting & prayer
1865    Battle of Mobile/Spanish Fort/Fort Morgan/Fort Blakely
1933    Japan leaves the League of Nations
1937    Pope Pius XI publishes anti-Nazi encyclical "Mit brennender Sorge"
1940    Himmler orders building of the Auschwitz concentration camp
1941    Britain leases bases in Trinidad to US for 99 years
1941    Coup in Yugoslavia ousts Prince Paul's pro-Nazi regime, prompting Hitler to order an invasion
1941    Takeo Yoshikawa begins spying on US installations on Oahu
1942    Allied air attack on the German submarine base at St Nazaire, paves the way for a nocturnal Commando raid
1942    Ceylon: Adm. James Somerville takes over the British Far Eastern Fleet
1943    US troops attack Fonduk Pass, Tunisia
1944    The Nazis murders 40 Jewish policemen in Riga, deport the Jewish children of Lovno, murder 2,000 Jews in Kauna, and transport 1,000 Jews from Drancy, France. to Auschwitz
1945    B-29s begin mining Japanese waters
1945    Wiesbaden falls to the US XX Corps
1945    The last German V-2 rocket attack on Britain: 134 people, many of them Jewish, are killed Whitechapel, London
1952    Attempted assassination of West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
1958    First Secretary of the CP (since 1953) Nikita Khrushchev becomes premier of the USSR (1958-1964)
1964    UN peacekeeping troops arrive on Cyprus

BORN
972    King Robert II "the Pious" or "the Wise" of France (996-1031)
1196    Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich of Vladimir, Prince of Novgorod (1200-1205, 1207-1210), Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal (1246-1248), deposed, d. 1252)
1746    Carlo Maria Buonaparte, Corsican lawyer who had a famous son, d. 1785
1785    Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, who didn't become King Louis XVII of France, d. 1795.
1823    Samuel Kosciusko Zook, Brig Gen, U.S., d/w, Gettysburg, 1863
1893    Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic, Chetnik and Nazi collaborator, executed 1946
1894    René Paul Fonck, Allied WW I "Ace of Aces" (74 confirmed kills, >30 more possibles), d. 1953
1895    Roland Aubrey Leighton, British soldier-poet, friend to Vera Britten, d/w in the Worcesters 1915
2007    Charlotte Winters, last surviving WW I "Yeomanette", at 109

DIED
47BC Ptolemy XIII of Egypt (c. 15), brother and husband to Cleopatra, drowned in the Nile fleeing Caesar's troops
965    Count Arnulf I "Le Vieux" of Flanders, c. 75
1211    King Sancho I of Portugal (1185-1211), at 56
1350    King Alfonso XI of Castile, León, and Galicia (1311-1350), c. 48, of Plague at Gibraltar
1378    Pope Gregory XI - Pierre Roger de Beaufort (1371-1378), c. 42, who ended the "Babylonian Captivity" of the Papacy in Avignon
1701    Anne Hilarion de Cotentin, the Count of Tourville, French Admiral, at 58
1729    Duke Leopold of Lorraine and Bar (1690-1729), 49
1836    James Walker Fannin, Jr. (c. 32), inept commander, and c. 320 other Texians, executed at Goliad
1854    Duke Carlo III Ferdinando of Parma & Piacenza (1848-1854), 31, assassinated
1900    Pieter Joubert, Boer Commander, at 69
1942    John W. Wilcox, Jr., 60, Rear Adm, USN, washed overboard from the stern of the battleship 'Washington' (BB 56) in the North Atlantic
1968    Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, 31, the first man in space, airplane crash
1991    Aldo Ray (Aldo Da Re), 64, veteran, actor ("What Did You Do in the War, Daddy")