310    Consecration of Pope Eusebius (Apr 18-Aug 17, 310 - or 309), later canonized
1483    Battle of the Ponte di Crevola: The Milanese defeat the Swiss
1506    Pope Julius II lays the first stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica
1644    Thousands of Pamunky and allied Indians raid the Virginia Colony, killing c. 500 settlers, initiating the 32-months' long Second Tidewater War, in which the colonists triumph
1676    Sudbury, Mass., attacked by Indians
1775    Paul Revere, Samuel Prescott, & William Dawes take a little ride
1804    President Jefferson welcomes Alexander von Humboldt to the White House, initiating a week long visit punctuated by lengthy philosophical, geographic, and scientific discussions
1861    Baltimore mob attacks the 27th Pennsylvania, several injured
1861    Col R E Lee may have been offered and refused a major command in the U.S. Army
1861    Confederates capture Harpers Ferry arsenal
1862    Farragut's fleet bombards Fts Jackson & St. Philip, below New Orleans
1864    Battle of Poison Springs, Ark
1912    Regia Marina Capt. Enrico Millo leads a nocturnal torpedo boat raid into the Dardanelles.
1923    Poland annexes Central Lithuania
1934    The U.S. Army stops issuing sabers to the cavalry.
1942    Burma: Chinese 55th Div collapses, breaking Allied front
1942    Doolittle Raid: 16 B-25Bs off CV Hornet strike Tokyo and other targets
1942    World War II edition of "Stars & Stripes" begins publication in England
1945    c. 1000 Allied bombers raid Helgoland, in the North Sea, 128 die
1946    The League of Nations is officially dissolved
1954    Egypt: Nasser seizes power as premier
1956    Egypt & Israel agree to a ceasefire
1983    Beirut: Suicide bomber attacks the US Embassy, 63 die

359    Flavius Gratianus -- Gratian, Roman Emperor (367-383)
1480    Lucrezia Borgia, a much maligned woman, d. 1519
1521    François d'Andelot de Coligny, French Protestant general, d. 1569
1590    Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (1603-1617)
1797    Louis-Adolphe Thiers, statesman, historian ("Histoire de la revolution française"), Head of State of the French Provisional Republic (1871-1873), d. 1877
1853    Leopold Graf Berchtold von und zu Ungarschitz, inept Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister who helped start the Great War, d. 1942
1864    Richard Harding Davis, intrepid war correspondent, d. 1916
1927    Samuel P. Huntington, political scientist - "The Soldier & the State," "Clash of Civilizations," d. 2008

680    Caliph Muawiyah I (661-680), c. 78, the first Umayyad
1592    Troilo Savelli di Polombara, Lord of Poggio Moiano, Aspra, & Montasola, beheaded in the Sant'Angelo at 18.
1689    George Jeffreys, British Chief Justice, the ultimate "Hanging Judge", at c. 40
1690    Charles V Leopold (47), titular Duke of Lorraine (1675-1690), Imperial field marshal
1859    Ramachandra Pandurang Tope - "Tatya Tope", c. 44-45, Indiand rebel leader and general, the "Sepoy Rebellion", hanged by the British
1943    Adm. Yamamoto Isoruku (59), air ambush in the Solomon Islands.
1945    Ernie Pyle, war correspondent, kia at 44, Ie Shima, Okinawa
1945    Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich von Wied, 69, sometime Prince of Albania (Feb. 7-Sep. 3, 1914)
1955    Albert Einstein, 76, scientist