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TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
1448    Constantine XI Palaeologos becomes [the last] Byzantine Emperor, kia 1453 -- Learn More
1503    Giuliano delle Rovere is elected Pope as Julius II (1503-1513)
1756    Giacomo Casanova escapes from the Leads, in the Palace of the Doge, Venice, after 14 months imprisonment -- Learn More
1803    US Frigate 'Philadelphia' grounds off Tripoli, & is taken by the Barbary pirates
1808    Battle of Durango, Spain
1808    Battle of Pan Corbo: The French defeat the Spanish
1813    Anglo-Spanish forces liberate Pamplona from the French
1813    Ottoman authorities sell 1,800 Serb women & children into slavery at Belgrade
1912    First Balkan War - Battle of Lule Burgas begins: By Nov 3rd the Bulgarians crush the Turkish army in Thrace
1925    Reza Pahlevi becomes Shah of Persia in a coup (1925-1941)
1937    Spanish Republican government moves to Valencia from Barcelona; resolve of the defenders increases
1938    Charles Lindbergh test flies an Me-109, courtesy of his friend Herman Göring
1940    Deadline for the Jews of Warsaw to move into the newly designated Ghetto
1941    'U-552' sinks USS' Reuben James' (DD-245), 115 die; first US ship lost in WW II
1956    Suez Crisis: Britain & France bomb Egypt
1968    President Johnson orders a halt to all bombing of North Vietnam

BORN
1345    King Ferdinand I of Portugal (1367-1383)
1705    Lorenzo Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli - Pope Clement XIV (1769-1774)
1740    William Paca, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1799
1825    Raleigh Edward Colston, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896
1826    Hugh Boyle Ewing, Bvt Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1905
1831    Daniel Butterfield, Maj Gen, U.S., composer of "Taps," d. 1901
1835    Adelbert Ames, Brig Gen, U.S., last surviving Civil War general, d. 1933
1843    Alexandre-Georges-Henri Regnault, French artist, Volunteer of 1870, kia, 1871
1860    Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the American Girl Scouts, d. 1927
1887    Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Chinese Nationalists, d. 1975
1930    Michael Collins, in Rome, USAF, astronaut (Gemini 10, Apollo 11)
1949    Terrence Wilcutt, USMC, astronaut
1960    Prince Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Pretender to the Peacock Throne

DIED
1448    Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaeologus (1425-1448), 55 - the penultimate emperor
1732    Victor Amadeus III, 66, Duke of Savoy (1675-1730), King of Sicily (1713-1718), King of Sardinia (1720-1730), abdicated due to ill health
1851    Prince-Bishop Peter II Petrovic Njegos of Montenegro (1830-51), at 37
1918    Stephen Tisza, sometime PM of Hungary (1903-1905, 1913-1917), assassinated at 57
1926    Anteo Zamboni, 15-year old anarchist, lynched as he attempted to shoot Mussolini
1948    Over 2,000 Chinese Nationalist troops, when the transport 'Hsuan Huai' catches fire in the Manchurian port of Yingkou
1964    Theodore C Freeman, astronaut, at 34, T-38 crash
1984    Premier Indira Gandhi of India (1966-1977, 1980-1984), 66, assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards
1991    Joseph Papp, USN veteran, producer, of cancer at 70