43BC BC - Phyrric senatorial victory over Marc Antony at Mutina (Modena)
1413    Venetians defeat the Hungarians in Friulia
1421    Dikes at Dort, Holland, break, 100,000 drown
1488    Caterina Sforza refuses to surrender Forli, despite threats against her children by the Orsi
1521    Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther
1524    Giovanni da Verrazano enters New York Bay
1536    HRE Charles V challenges Francis I of France to personal combat, but is refused
1625    Franco-Piedmontese forces capture Gavi from the Spanish-Genoese
1793    Battle of Warsaw: Russians crush Polish insurgents
1796    Battle of Ceva ends: French defeat the Austro-Piedmontese (from 16th)
1797    British troops under Abercromby invade in Puerto Rico - will fail to capture San Juan
1808    Napoleon's Bayonne Decree authorizes seizure of American ships
1846    Battle of Cerro Gordo: Winfield Scott defeats the Mexican Army -- Learn More
1848    Battle of Visco: Austrians defeat Italian Nationalists
1861    Confederacy authorizes privateers
1861    U.S. steamer 'Star of West' captured by Confederates, Indianola, Texas
1861    Virginia is the 8th state to secede
1863    La Grange, Tn: Grierson's Raid begins, will end at Baton Rouge, LA
1864    Battle of Plymouth, NC
1864    Bread riot in Savannah, Georgia
1864    Grant suspends prisoner-of-war exchanges over Confederate refusal to treat black troops as soldiers
1865    Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
1868    British burn and abandon Magdala, Abyssinia
1895    Treaty of Shimonoseki: Sino-Japanese War ends (1894-1895), China loses Formosa
1941    Iraq: British reinforcements arrive to defeat pro-fascist coup
1941    Yugoslavia surrenders to the Germans
1942    Burma: Anglo-Indians & Chinese are unable to hold the Japanese advance
1942    Germans begin to destroy the Sobibor Concentration Camp
1944    Chinese forces in northern Burma resume the offensive.
1944    Last Japanese offensive in China, to seize B-29 bases.
1945    Baltic: German SS 'Goya' (5,230 GRT) sunk, c. 6,000 killed
1945    German occupiers flood Wieringermeer, Netherlands
1945    Mussolini flees from Salo, heading for Milan
1945    U.S. forces land on Mindanao Island, Philippines.
1961    Bay of Pigs: 1,400 Cuban exiles land to overthrow Castro
1975    Khmer Rouge capture Phnom Penh, initiating a reign of terror

1573    Maximilian I, Duke and Elector of Bavaria (1597-1651)
1788    Joseph Gilbert Totten, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1864
1809    Philip St George Cocke, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1861
1813    Henry Washington Benham, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1884
1894    Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, War Commissar (1941-1945), Party Head/Premier (1953-64), d. 1971
1915    Anthony Quinn, actor ("Back to Bataan"), d. 2001
1918    William Holden, AAF veteran, actor ("Stalag 17", "Bridge Over the River Kwai"), d. 1981
1958    Sergei Y Vozovikov, cosmonaut

43BC Aulus Hirtius, c. 57, general, author (Book VIII of "Caesar's Commentaries"), Consul, kia at Modena
43BC Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, general, Consul, d/w from Forum Gallorum, 15th
744    Caliph Walid ibn Yazid - Walid II of Baghdad (743-744), murdered
858    Pope Benedict III (Sep 29, 855-April 17, 858)
1355    Doge Marino Falieri of Venice (1354-1355), beheaded by the Serenissima for treason
1427    Duke Jan IV of Brabant and Limburg (1415-1427), 23
1433    Stefano Colonna, Co-Lord of Palestrina, Condottiero, murdered by his nephew Salvatore Colonna, Co-Lord of Palestrina, who is promptly lynched in a popular uprising.
1605    Pope Leo XI - Alessandro Ottaviano de'Medici (1-17 Apr 1605), at 69
1616    Tokugawa Ieyasu, 73, retired First Tokugawa Shogun (1603-1605)
1711    Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I von Habsburg (1705-11), at 32
1790    Benjamin Franklin, sometime militiaman and military engineer, at 84
1945    Walter Model, Nazi field marshal, suicide at 54, rather than surrender
1983    Gen. Mark W Clark, at 87
1987    Dick Shawn, actor ("What Did You Do in the War, Daddy?"), at 63
1997    Chaim Herzog, President of Israel (1983-93), at 78