October 31, 2011: Russian efforts to maintain its revived fleet of Tu-160 long-range bombers has come up short because the Russian Air Force cannot order enough Tu-160 engines to keep the engine factory going. The air force only wants about five NK-32 engines a year. Each Tu-160 is fitted with four of these 3.5 ton engines. Most of these engines were built 10-20 years ago, and have been overhauled many times. After a while, these engines cannot be refurbished, and that's why some new ones are needed. But the manufacturer insists the smallest economical annual production is twenty engines. Otherwise, the price per engine for five a year will be more than the government is willing to pay. Negotiations continue.
This sort of thing has the air force generals very upset. In part, that's because a year ago two Tu-160s made a record 23 hour long, 18,000 kilometer flight around the periphery of Russia. This required two in-flight refuelings from Il-78 tankers. This feat was nothing new. Two years ago, a Tu-160 completed a 21 hour flight. Although designed as a heavy bomber, the Tu-160 has largely been used, in the last few years, as a long range reconnaissance aircraft. But even in that role, the Tu-160 can carry cruise missiles and other air-to-ground weapons. The air force generals believe the Tu-160 is a valuable asset, and worth keeping in service. But obtaining spare parts from the post-Cold War Russian defense industries is very difficult. Many of the Cold War era firms are bankrupt, and the survivors often don't produce the quality stuff they used to.
Three years ago, Russia received its first new Tu-160 heavy bomber since the early 1990s. Production had been revived five years ago. The plan is to produce one new Tu-160 every 18 months, until another 14 are built. But this plan appears to have been put aside in favor of upgrading the equipment on current aircraft. Currently, there are 16 Tu-160s in service.
Production of the Tu-160 ceased in 1994, with several of them partially completed. Apparently, the first of the recent "new" aircraft is one of those left uncompleted in the 1990s. Lots of Russian weapons factories were shut down after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. That occurred, in part, because the Soviet Union was, literally, bankrupt. The defense budget was cut by more than two-thirds, and weapons production got hurt the most. The only plants that kept operating were those producing items for export. But many of the shuttered factories were preserved, and now many of them are in operation again, picking up where they left off. But the revived firms do not have the pick of design, management and skilled worker talent. All the best people are working at more lucrative commercial firms.
The Tu-160 "Blackjack" is very similar to the U.S. B-1, but never really lived up to its potential. Still, it is the most modern heavy bomber the Russians have. It's a 267 ton aircraft that can carry up to 40 tons of bombs and missiles, for up to 12,000 kilometers. The aircraft can refuel in the air. It originally entered service in 1987, and was built mainly to deliver cruise missiles. Noting the success of the B-1 in Afghanistan and Iraq with smart bombs, the Tu-160s were modified to do the same, in addition to retaining their cruise missile carrying capability.