588BC Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon laid siege to Jerusalem, which fell on July 23, 586 BC
0    Armed Forces Day in Nigeria and Army Day in India
0    Feast of St. Maurus, Patron of the Azores
69    Coup installs Marcus Salvius Otho as Roman Emperor (Jan 15-April 16, 69) -- Learn More
708    Accession of Pope Sisinnius (15 Jan-4 Feb 708)
946    Caliph al-Mustaqfi of Baghdad (944-946) is deposed and blinded, as he did to his predecesor
1495    French besiege Gaeta (to Feb 16), held for Ferrante II of Naples
1517    The Turks sack Cairo
1535    Henry VIII becomes head of the Church in England, in order to divorce his wife
1552    Treaty of Chambord: Catholic France agrees to support German Protestants against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor
1582    Russia cedes Livonia & Estonia to Poland, losing access to the sea
1680    French explorer Sieur de la Salle builds Ft Crevecoeur
1709    The Austro-Papal War ends -- Learn More
1757    Robert-François Damiens stabs Louis XV with a pen knife
1762    Samuel Fraunces opens a tavern in New York City
1799    French & Polish troops plunder Itri, murdering 60
1851    President Hose é Joaquín de Herrera of Mexico (1848-1851) ousted in a coup by Mariano Arista (1851-1852)
1865    Union soldiers, sailors, & marines (among them George Dewey), storm Ft Fisher, NC
1919    The 'Great Molasses Flood' in Boston, 21 die
1919    Pianist Ignace Paderewski is named primier & foreign minister of Poland (to Dec 9, 1919)
1942    Bataan: Japanese troops penetrate US/Philippine defenses
1942    Chinese halt a Japanese offensive near Changsha in Hunan Province.
1942    Japanese Southern Army invades Burma from Thailand.
1942    Malaya: Japanese "end run" landings dislocate the British left.
1943    Dedication of the Pentagon
1943    Guadalcanal: US forces make only limited gains.
1943    Japanese superbattleship 'Musashi' arrives at Truk, to ride at anchor for several months.
1943    Papua: Allied forces make limited gains near Sanananda
1944    European Advisory Commission decides to divide Germany
1944    New Guinea: Australians reach north coast of Huon Peninsula, near Sio.
1945    Japanese offensive in China advances on the U.S. airbase in Sichuan.
1945    Red Army liberates the Krakow-Plaszow concentration camp
1949    Mao's Red army captures Tientsin
1951    German court gives Ilse Koch, "The Bitch of Buchenwald", life (suicide in prison, 1967)
1962    Naval Battle of Etna Bay, New Guinea: Dutch defeat the Indonesians
1973    Pres Nixon suspends all US offensive action over North Vietnam
1997    Dr Jerry Lineger, Capt, USN, joins MIR via Space Shuttle Atlantis

1342    Duke Philip II "the Bold" of Burgundy (1363-1404)
1432    King Afonso V "the African" of Portugal (1438-1481)
1485    Catherine of Aragon, Mrs. Henry VIII No. 1, d. 1535
1504    Michele Ghisleri - Pope St. Pius V (1566-1572)
1716    Philip Livingston, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1778.
1809    Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, anarchist, journalist, d. 1865
1815    Henry Morris Naglee, saucy Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1886
1817    Lewis Golding Arnold, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1871
1821    John C. Breckinridge, Vice-President (1857-1861), Maj Gen, CSA
1821    Lafayette McLaws, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1897
1894    Ecaterina Teodoroiu, Romanian army nurse and infantry officer, kia 1917
1908    Edward Teller, "Father of the H-Bomb," d. 2003
1913    Alexander Ivanovich Marinesko, Soviet submariner, captain of the 'S-13,' which sank the German ship 'Wilhelm Gustloff" in the Baltic1945, with the loss of c. 9,000 passengers
1914    Hugh Trevor-Roper, MI-6 veteran, historian ("The Last Days of Adolph Hitler"), d. 2003
1918    Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt (1954-1971)
1920    John J. O'Connor, Vicar-General of the Armed Forces, Archbishop of NY (1984-2000), d. 2000.
1929    Martin Luther King Jr, American, assassinated 1968
1934    David Chandler, historian ("The Campaigns of Napoleon"), d. 2004

69    Roman Emperor Servius Sulpicius Galba (June 68-Jan 15, 69), 70, and L. Calpurnius Piso, 30, his adopted heir, murdered in the Forum, and Praetorian Centurion Sempronius Densus, killed trying to defend them
936    King Rudolph of West Francia (923-936), c. 45, sometime Duke of Burgundy (921-923)
1208    Pierre de Castelnau, Papal Legate, murdered by the Cathars, initiating the Albigensian Cursade
1330    Martino Zaccaria, Lord of Phocea and Chios (1314-1330)
1519    Vasco Nuñez de Balboa, Conquistador, beheaded at 41 on trumped up charges of treason
1595    Ottoman Sultan Murad III (1574-1595), 48
1705    Earl Walraad "the Young" of Nassau-Ottweiler
1815    Amy Lyon, later Emma Hart, later Emma, Lady Hamilton, Nelson's beloved, at 49
1896    Matthew B Brady, 73, war photographer
1919    Karl Liebknecht (47) and Rosa Luxemburg (47), communist revolutionaries, murdered by the Freikorps in Berlin
1926    John Harling, 93, the last known veteran of the "Light Brigade".
1948    Josephus Daniels, 85, SecNav (1913-1921) -- Learn More
1950    General of the Air Force Henry "Hap" Arnold, 63
1988    Sean MacBride, sometime commander of the IRA, at 83
1996    King Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho (1966-90), 51