405BC Battle of Aegospotami: Spartans crush the Athenian fleet, ending the Peloponnesian War.
0    Feast of St Lucy, Patron of Authors
0    Festival of the Roman earth deity Tellus
115    Devastating earthquake at Antioch: cities as far as Palestine are ruined, Caesarea Maritima is destroyed by a tsunami, many die, Emperor Trajan is among the survivors
1294    Abdication of Pope Celestine V (5 Jul-13 Dec 1294), d. May, 1296, canonized
1545    Opening session of the Council of Trent (1545-1563)
1577    Sir Francis Drake sets sail from England to go around world
1636    First muster of the militia at Salem, Massachusetts - Birthday of the National Guard
1643    Battle of Alton: Parliamentary forces (c. 5,000) execute a surprise attack on a Royalist garrison (c. 1000)
1774    John Sullivan's militiamen take Ft William & Mary, NH, from the British
1861    Combat at Buffalo Mountain/Camp Allegheny/Allegheny Summit, WVa
1862    Battle of Fredericksburg, VA; Mismanaged Union attacks lead to a devastating defeat
1864    Battle of Ft McAllister, GA
1916    Avalanches kill 10,000 Austrian & Italian troops in 24 hrs in the Tyrol
1916    French chief of staff Josef Joffre replaced by Robert Nivelle
1918    The first US occupation troops cross the Rhine to enter Germany
1918    Pres. Wilson arrives at Brest on the former German liner 'George Washington', to start the first visit to Europe by a sitting president, for the Paris Peace Conference
1931    Winston Churchill is struck by a car while exiting a cab on Fifth Avenue between 76th and 77th Streets
1939    Battle of the Rio de La Plata: three British cruisers defeat the German pocket battleship 'Graf Spee'
1941    British and Canadian troops abandon the mainland portions of Hong Kong
1942    British advance cautiously in the Arakan region of Burma
1942    Japanese survivors at Buna (c. 100 men) escape across the Giruwa River
1942    U.S. aircraft bomb Munda
1943    Burma: the Chinese New 38th Div reaches Bhamo
1943    Massacre of Kalavryta: German troops kill c. 500 Greek men and boys
1944    USS 'Nashville' (CL-43) struck by a kamikaze off the Philippines, 138 die
1966    First US bombing of Hanoi
1967    Unsuccessful coup against Greek King Constantine II
1981    Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski seizes power in Poland
2001    Islamic terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament: 9 die & 18 are wounded, five attackers are killed
2003    US troops find Iraqi Dictator Saddam Hussein in a hole in the ground
2013    Student opens fire at Arapahoe High School, Centennial, Co.: two injured, shooter killed

1272    Frederick of Aragon, Regent of Sicily (1291-1295), King Federico III of Sicily (1295-1337)
1521    Felice Peretti - Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590)
1533    King Erik XIV Vasa of Sweden (1560-69)
1553    King Henry IV of Navarre (1572-1610) and France (1589-1610)
1678    Yinzhen, the Yongzheng Emperor of Manchu China (1722-8 October 1735)
1816    Werner von Siemens, German artillery officer, electrician, d. 1892
1858    Svetozar Boroevic, later Boroevic von Bojna, Croatian Austro-Hungarian field Marshal, Commander of the Italian Front, 1915-1918, d. 1920
1887    Alvin C. York, American soldier, Medal of Honor, d. 1964
1914    Alan L Bullock, historian ("Hitler: A Study in Tyranny"), d. 2004

558    Childebert I, c. 62, King of Paris (511-558) and of Orléans (524-558).
838    King Pepin I of Aquitania (817-838) within the HRE, c. 40
1124    Pope Callistus II - Guy de Vienne (1119-1124), c. 55
1126    Duke Heinrich IX "the Black" of Bavaria (1120-1126)
1204    Maimonides, Jewish philosopher and scholar, at 69
1250    Frederick II, 55, King of the Germans & HRE (1212-1250), King of Sicily (1198-1250) & of Jerusalem (1225-1228), the "Wonder of the World."
1521    King Manuel I "the Fortunate" of Portugal and the Algarves (1495-1521), at 52
1557    Niccolo Tartaglia, 57, mathematician, fortification engineer, the "Father of Ballistics"
1672    Jan II Kazimierz, king of Poland (1648-1668), at 63
1721    Alexander Selkirk, c. 45, sailor, naval officer, castaway, who inspired DeFoe to write "Robinson Crusoe"
1754    Ottoman Sultan Mahmud I (1730-1754), 58
1783    Samuel Johnson -- "Doctor Johnson", poet, author, moralist, critic, editor, lexicographer, at 75
1814    Charles-Joseph Lamoral, Prince de Ligne, Belgian-born Habpsburg Field Marshal and military thinker, at 79
1945    "Beast of Belsen" Josef Kramer (39), "Bitch of Belsen" Irma Grese (22), and six other Belsen war criminals, hanged
1969    Adm Raymond A Spruance, victor at Midway, at 83