480BC Battle of Thermopylae -- "Go, tell the Spartans, we lie here in obedience to their orders." [Trad]
0    Refrigerator Day
0    Feast of Bernard of Menthon, Patron of Gibraltar, Algeciras, and the Knights Templar
636    Battle of the Yarmuk: After six days of fighting Arab forces under Khalid ibn al-Walid inflict a devastating defeat on the Byzantines under Heraclius, securing Syria for Islam
917    Battle of Anchialus: Simeon the Great of the Bulgars defeats the Byzantines
1119    Battle of Bremule/Brenneville: Henry I of England defeats Louis IV of France
1499    Second Naval Battle of Sapienza: Turks & Venetians clash
1504    Cesare Borgia is shipped out of Italy by Pope Julius II to be imprisoned in Spain
1648    Battle of Lens: The Great Conde feigns retreat to rout a larger Austrian force
1673    The Texel: Dutch fleet defeats an Anglo-French attempt to invade the Netherlands
1707    First British Siege of Pensacola: After an 8-day investment, the British abandon their attempt to take the town, held by pro-Bourbon Spanish troops
1781    Washington marches from NY to fight Cornwallis at Yorktown -- Learn More
1794    Battle of Fallen Timbers: Maj Gen "Mad" Anthony Wayne routs the Ohio Indian Confederacy
1847    Battle of Contreras: Brig Gen (and future president) Franklin Pierce breaks the Mexican front -- Learn More
1861    Skirmish at Hawk's Nest, WVa
1861    Skirmish at Jonesboro, Ms
1866    Pres Andrew Johnson formally declares the Slaveholders' Rebellion over
1882    Tchaikovsky's "1812 Overture" debuts in Moscow, with help from the gunners of the Imperial Guard -- Learn More
1914    Battle of Gumbinnen: Russians defeat Germans in East Prussia
1914    German troops occupy Brussels
1914    German troops massacre 211 Belgian civilians at Andenne.
1915    Italy declares war on Turkey
1918    Britain opens offensive on Western Front
1926    Uprising against Reza Shah Pahlavi in Persia
1940    Leon Trotsky is mortally wounded in Mexico City by a Stalinist agent
1940    Winston Churchill says, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few" -- Learn More
1942    31 Marine aircraft off USS 'Long Island' (CVE-1) land on Guadalcanal
1942    Japanese order landing of 1500 troops at Milne Bay, southeastern Papua
1942    Wartime dim-out begins in San Francisco
1943    Kiska secured, as Japanese had left prior to Allied landing on the 15th
1943    Marines take Baanga I, at a cost of 52 killed and 110 wounded
1944    Biak I., off New Guinea, is cleared of Japanese forces after 3 months
1944    Charles de Gaulle returns to Paris
1944    Russian offensive at Iasi & Kishinev, Romania
1945    Five days after the Armistice, Br recon a/c over Burma are fired upon by Japanese antiaircraft batteries.
1945    Five days after the Armistice, Japanese forces in China cease fire, as Red Chinese forces occupy Kalgan, northwest of Peking, and Russian troops capture Harbin & Mukden, Manchuria
1945    Five days after the Armistice, a second militarist coup is suppressed at Tokyo
1955    Anti-French rioting in Morocco and Algeria, hundreds die
1955    USAF Col. Horace A. Hanes' SuperSaber reaches 40,000 feet and 822.135 mph
1959    Belgium shortens conscription to 12 months
1968    Czechoslovakia is invaded by 650,000 Warsaw Pact troops, ending the "Prague Spring"
1978    Palestinian gunmen open fire on an El Al bus in London
1982    US Marines land in Beirut
1988    IRA landmine demolishes a British military bus, 8 die
1991    Estonia declares independence from the USSR

1778    Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme, Chilean patriot, d. 1842
1802    Cadwalader Ringgold, naval officer, U.S., d. 1867
1811    Gilman Marston, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1890
1824    Absalom Baird, Brig Gen, U.S, d. 1905
1832    Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe, Civil War balloonist, d. 1913
1833    Benjamin Harrison, sometime colonel, 70th Indiana, President (1889-1893), d. 1901 -- Learn More
1882    Enrico Toti, Italian cyclist, patriot, and one-legged war hero, kia 1916 -- Learn More
1890    Howard Phillips Lovecraft, American author, creator of 'Cthulhu', d. 1937
1893    Piero Pieri, sometime decorated Alpino, military historian, d. 15 dicembre 1979
1903    Zhang Lingfu, Chinese Nationalist general, kia 1947
1941    Slobodan Milosevich, President of Serbia (1989-1997), the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1997-2000), war criminal

651    St. Oswin, King of Deria (642-651), Martyr
984    Pope John XIV (983-984), a prisoner of Anti-Pope Boniface VII
1153    St. Bernard of Clairvaux, c. 62-63, who called for the Second Crusade
1191    2,500 Moslem men, women, & children massacred at Acre by order of "Good King" Richard I of England, slain in 'retaliation' for a similar 'heroic' deed by Saladin, the "Light of Islam"
1672    Johan de Witt (47), Grand Pensionary of Holland (1653-1672) and his brother Cornelius (49), lynched at the Hague
1804    SGT Charles Floyd, c. 22, of "bilious cholic" - the only fatality on the Lewis & Clark Expedition
1823    Pope Pius VII - Barnaba Chiaramoni (1800-1823), 82
1985    Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, 53, Sikh leader, shot by Sikh extremists
2006    Joe Rosenthal, 91, photographer - Learn More
2010    Charles Roberts, 80, pioneer wargame publisher