0    Feast of St. John of Nepomuk, Patron of Bohemia, and that of St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, Patron of Northumbria
235    Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus - Maximinus Thrax is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the legions at Mainz (235-238)
1631    German Imperial troops sack Magdeburg, 25,000 said to have died
1760    Great Fire at Boston, leaves much of the city in ruins
1800    Battle of Heliopolis, Egypt: the French defeat the Turks
1814    Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, Day 1: Austro-Russians v. Napoleon
1815    Napoleon reaches Paris from Elba; The Hundred Days begin -- Learn More
1833    Cdr Geisinger of USS 'Peacock' & the King of Siam negotiate a commercial treaty
1836    Battle of Coleto Creek: Texian garrison of Goliad surrenders to the Mexican Army
1849    Battle of Cava: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
1852    Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is published
1853    The Tai-ping rebels capture Nanking
1890    Kaiser Wilhelm II fires Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
1896    Marines land in Nicaragua to protect US citizens
1922    First US carrier commissioned: 'Langley' (CV-1) -- Learn More
1927    Joseph Goebbels leads the first Nazi pogrom, attacking Jewish shops in Berlin.
1931    Christian Schreiber, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Berlin (1930-1933), warns against National Socialism
1933    The Nazis open their first concentration camp, at Dachau, near Munich
1937    Battle of Guadaljara: Italo-Nationalist offensive begins
1939    7,000 Jews flee German occupied Memel, Lithuania
1939    Naval Research Lab proposes development of nuclear power
1942    Gen MacArthur vows "I shall return"
1942    Major Italo-German air raid on Malta
1943    Tunisia: British attack the Mareth Line
1951    Indonesian Army offensive against the Darul Islam movement on Java
1952    Final ratification of peace treaty restoring full sovereignty to Japan
1995    The Japanese "Aum Shinrikyo" cult disperses sarin gas on the Tokyo subway, 12 die, over 1,300 injured
2003    Widespread coalition air strikes in Iraq

43BC Pubius Ovidius Naso -- Ovid, naughty poet, d. in exile AD 17
41    Marcus Didius Falco, soldier, detective, fictionally, d. c. 100
1497    Atahualpa, the last Inca Emperor (1532-July 26, 1533)
1583    Alvise "Leonardo" Mocenigo, Venetian admiral, War of Candia (1648-1654) d. 1654
1725    Ottoman Sultan Abdül-Hamid I (1774-89)
1804    Neal Dow, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
1811    Napoléon II François Charles Joseph Bonaparte, "L'Aiglon", King of Rome, Duke of Reichstadt, d. 1832
1812    George Bibb Crittenden, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1880
1820    Prince Alexander Ian Cuza of Moldavia-Wallachia (Romania) (1859-1866), d. 1873
1823    John Echols, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896
1825    William Nelson Rector Beall, Brig Gen, C.S.A.
1830    Eugene Asa Carr, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1910
1856    James Webb Cook Hayes, presidential son, businessman, soldier with a Medal of Honor, d. 1934 -- Learn More
1870    Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, brilliant German commander in East Africa, 1914-1918, d. 1964
1882    Rene Coty, President of France (1953-58), d. 1962
1894    Hans Wilhelm Langsdorff, German naval officer, sometime commander of the 'Graf Spee,' suicide 1939
1917    Dame Vera Lynn, singer ("The White Cliffs of Dover") --
1918    Donald F. Featherstone, British author, military historian, and pioneer wargamer, d. 2013

268    Roman Emperor Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (253-268), c. 50, assassinated at Milan [Alt]
842    King Alfonso II "the Chaste" of the Asturias (791-842), c. 83
1191    Pope Clement III - Paolo Scolari (1187-91), c. 60
1351    Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq of Delhi (1325-1351), c. 50
1390    Emperor Alexios III Megas Komnenos of Trebizond (1349-20 March 1390), 51
1415    King Henry IV Bolingbroke of England (1399-1413), at 45
1568    Albrecht von Hohenzollern, 37th and last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1511-1525), first Duke of Prussia (1525-1568), 77
1597    Voivode Alexandru III "the Bad" of Wallachia (1592-1593), ousted, eviled, executed by strangulation by the Ottomans
1619    Matthias, 61, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia (1611-19), King Matthias II of Hungary (1608-1619)
1703    Forty-six of the "Forty-seven" ronin, ritual suicide
1894    Lajos Kossuth, 91, Hungarian patriot
1920    Pres Venustiano Carranza of Mexico (1915-20), murdered at 60
1929    Ferdinand Foch, 78, Marshal of France
1939    Lt. Cdr Percy Thompson Dean, who had won a VC at Zeebrugge in WW I, Member of Parliament, at 62
2004    Juliana Luise Emma Marie Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau, 95, sometime Queen of the Netherlands (1948-1980)
2005    Andrew Toti, inventor of the "Mae West" life jacket, at 89