1128    Battle of S. Mamede: Pr. Afonso of Portugal defeats his mother Queen Theresa, overthrowing her regency
1298    Jews massacred at Ifhausen, Austria
1314    Battle of Bannockburn: Robert the Bruce liberates Scotland from the English
1322    Jews are expelled from France for the third time
1396    Crusaders under the Count of Nevers reach Vienna, en route to Nicopolis and Constantinople
1397    Sultan Bajezid I ransoms Crusaders captured at Nicopolis
1502    First meeting between Cesare Borgia & Niccolo Machiavelli, during which the latter arranges for Leonardo da Vinci to serve as chief military engineer for the former
1509    Henry VIII is crowned King of England
1540    Henry VIII divorces Anne of Cleves, wife No. 4
1622    Battle of Macau" The Portuguese repulse a Dutch attack on the city
1762    Battle of Wilhelmstahl: The Prussians defeat the French
1793    France adopts its first republican constitution
1813    Battle of Beaver Dam: British and Indians defeat US forces
1817    Nationalist outbreak at Macerata, the Papal States
1821    Battle of Carabobo: Bolivar defeats Royalists at Caracas
1839    Battle of Nizib/Nusaybin: The Egyptians defeat the Ottomans, near the ancient city of Nisibis (northeastern Syria)
1859    Battle of San Martino: Sardinians defeat the Austrians
1859    Battle of Solferino: The French defeat the Austrians
1861    Tennessee becomes 11th state to secede from the Union
1863    Gettysburg Campaign: Lee crosses the Potomac
1863    William Rosecrans initiates the Tullahoma Campaign, TN
1866    Second Battle of Custoza: Austrians defeat the Italians
1898    Naval Action off San Juan: US blockaders skirmish with Spanish warships
1898    Battle of Las Guasimas, Cuba: US loses 16 kia, Spanish 12
1914    Aged Peter I of Serbia names his son Alexander Prince Regent
1914    The German Imperial Navy hosts the Royal Navy to "Fleet Week" at Kiel
1917    Russian Black Sea fleet mutinies at Sebastopol
1923    Pope Pius XI condemns the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Rhur
1940    France signs an armistice with Italy
1941    Nazis exterminate the entire male population of Gargzdai, Lithuania
1942    Japanese submarine 'I-25' shells Port Stevens, Oregon.
1943    Subhas Chandra Bose calls for Indian revolution against Britain
1943    Emperor Hirohito visits his super-battleship 'Musashi', the biggest white elephant in the imperial fleet
1945    Victory parade in Red Square in Moscow -- Learn More
1945    Australians liberate Sarawak from the Japanese
1961    Iraq demands dominion over Kuwait
1966    Period of European Great Power peace following WW II exceeds that which followed WW I

1244    Count Henrich I "the Child" of Hesse (1256-1308)
1753    William Hull, inept American general in 1812, d. 1825
1771    Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours, American gunpowder manufacturer, d. 1834
1820    Henry Rootes Jackson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1898
1822    Birkett Davenport Fry, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1891
1832    Edward Harland, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1915
1842    Ambrose Bierce, veteran, satirist ("The Devil's Dictionary"), vanished 1914
1850    Horatio Herbert Kitchener, soldier, Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, kia 1916 -- Learn More.
1939    Henry Lawrence Garett III, SecNav (1989-92)

1295    Lippoo Mannelii, in Siena by partisans of the Velluti family, in vendetta for a murder committed in 1267
1398    Zhu Yuanzhang, 69, the Hongwu Emperor of China (1368-1398)
1445    Annibale I Bentivoglio, Lord of Bologna(1438-1445), assassinated while leaving church by Battista Canneschi, an agent of the Canetoli & Ghisiliere families, many of whom are promptly lynched by the populace
1497    Michael Joseph "An Gof - The Blacksmith" and Thomas Flamank, Cornish rebels, hanged in London
1519    Lucrezia Borgia d'Este, 39, bearing her 7th child
1604    Edward de Vere, 54, Earl of Oxford, English peer and courtier, who wasn't Shakespeare's ghost writer
1908    Grover Cleveland, 71, sometime hangman, governor of New York (1883-1885), president (1885-1889, 1893-1897) -- Learn More