0    Four Chaplains Day in the United States -- Learn More
0    Feast of St. Blaise, Patron of Sicily and of Dalmatia
337    Election of Pope Julius I (337-352), later canonized
1238    The Mongols capture Vladimir, Russia
1377    Cardinal Robert of Geneva & John Hawkwood massacre c. 2,000 people in Cesena, Italy
1451    1451 Mehemet II was restored to power as Ottoman Sultan -- Learn More
1488    Portuguese navigator Bartholomeu Diaz sights the Cape of Good Hope
1509    Battle of Diu: the Portuguese defeat the Ottoman fleet, securing control of Indian Ocean commerce
1517    Ottoman Sultan Selim I takes Cairo, and proclaims himself Caliph
1576    Henry of Navarre [later Henri IV of France] escapes from Paris
1591    League of Torgau formed: Protestant German princes organize to oppose the Edict of Worms, which condemned Luther
1637    Collapse of the "Tulip Bubble": initiates history's first "Depression"
1706    Battle of Fraustadt: The Swedes defeat a much larger Saxon-Polish-Russian army
1740    King Carlo V permits Jews to live in Sicily
1781    British Adm. Rodney captured Sint Eustatius, Dutch West Indies, after a short siege -- Learn More
1783    Spain recognizes US independence
1797    Battle of Imola: the French rout the Papal Army
1801    The Senate ratifies the treaty ending the Quasi-War with France
1807    The Battle of Montevideo: The British capture the city from the Spanish
1813    Battle of San Lorenzo: San Martin's Argentine patriots defeat the Spanish colonial army
1813    Battle of Niquitas: Bolivar's Columbians defeat the Spanish Royalists
1852    Battle of Monte Caseros: Insurgents defeat Argentine President Rosas, who flees
1862    President Lincoln received the King of Siam's offer of war elephants to help fight the Confederacy
1863    Confederate raider 'Alabama' burns the US schooner 'Palmetto' off Brazil
1864    American Civil War: Sherman begins the Meridian Campaign in Mississippi
1867    Accession of Mutsuhito as Emperor of Japan -- the "Meiji" (1867-1912)
1915    Battle of the Suez Canal: a Turkish attempt to cross the canal is defeated
1917    German sub sinks US liner 'Housatonic', America severs relations
1933    Hitler informs his generals to prepare for war to secure Lebensraum
1942    Bataan: Fil-Am troops restore the Bagac-Orion line
1943    New Guinea: Aussie Kanga Force counterattacks from Wau, drives Japanese on Mubo
1944    U.S. ships shell Japanese island of Paramushiro in the Kuriles.
1945    Operation Thunderclap: the Eighth Air Force sends 1,000 B-17s to c. 3000 tons of bombs on Berlin, killing c. 3,000 and rendering 120,000 homeless.
1989    Military coup overthrows Dictator Alfredo Stroessner of Paraguay (1954-1989), who sheltered Nazis
1994    Sergei Krikalev becomes the first Russian on the Space Shuttle, 'Discovery'.
1998    USMC aircraft severs cable car line in northern Italy, 20 die

1368    King Charles VI "the Beloved" or "the Mad" of France (1380-1422)
1689    Blas de Lezo y Olavarrieta -- "Peg Leg", Spanish admiral, victor of Cartagena de las Indias (1741), d. of plague, 1741
1721    Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz, Frederic the Great's finest cavalryman, d. 1773 -- Learn More
1775    Louis-François, Baron Lejeune, French general, war artist, d. 1848
1795    Antonio José de Sucre, Liberator, President of Peru (June 23-July 17,1823), of Bolivia (1825-1828), d. 1830
1805    Samuel Ryan Curtis, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1866
1807    Joseph Eggleston Johnston, Gen, C.S.A., d. 1891
1824    George Thomas "Tige" Anderson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1901
1824    Nathan George "Shanks" Evans, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1868
1851    Charles Adelle Lewis Totten, American soldier (Chiricau War), wargame designer ('Strategos'), d. 1908
1859    Hugo Junkers, aircraft designer, anti-Nazi, d. 1935
1894    Juan Negrín, Premier of the Spanish Republic (1936-39), d. 1956
1904    Charles "Pretty Boy" Floyd, American criminal, k. 1934
1905    Andree Virot [Peel], Resistance worker who would win a Legion of Honor rescuing 102 Allied pilots, d. 2010
1907    James Michener, naval officer, author ("South Pacific"), d. 1997

474    Byzantine Emperor Flavius Valerius Leo -- Leo I "the Great" (457-474), c. 73
639    Lord K'inich Yo'nal Ahk I of Piedras Negras (603-639)
994    William IV "Proud Arm", c. 56, Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou (963-990), in retirement
1014    Sweyn/Sven I "Forkbeard" of Denmark (986-1014), Norway (986-995, 999-1014), and England (1013-1014)
1116    King Koloman of Hungary (1095-1116), at c. 45
1399    John of Gaunt, son of Edward III, the first Duke of Lancaster, 58
1451    Ottoman Sultan Murad II Kodja (1421-1444, 1446-1451), 46
1534    Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, c. 24, Irish nationalist, executed by Henry VIII in London
1898    Louis-Victor Baillot, 104, veteran of the French 105th of the Line, the last known surviving veteran of Waterloo
1898    Louis Victor Baillot, at 104, believed to have been the last survivor of the Waterloo Campaign -- Learn More
1924    Thomas Woodrow Wilson, President (1913-21), 67 -- Learn More
1943    The Rev. George Fox (b. 1900), Rabbi Alexander Goode (b. 1911), Rev. Clark V. Poling (b. 1910), and Fr. John P. Washington (b. 1908), plus some 250 others, in the 'Dorchester'
1945    Roland Freisler, 51, Nazi jurist, President of the 'People's Court, killed in an allied bombing
1969    Eduardo C Mondlane, president FRELIMO, Mozambique, murdered
1984    Ravindra Hareshwar Mhatre, 48, Indian diplomat, murdered in Britain by Kashmiri separatists
2015    Sir Martin Gilbert, 78, historian, biographer (“Churchill”, etc.)