0    Feast of St. Sarah the Black, Patron of the Romani
1086    Abbott Desiderius of Monte Cassino becomes Pope - Bl Victor III (1086-1087)
1153    Malcolm IV becomes King of Scotland (1153-1165)
1370    Peace treaty between the Hanseatic League and Denmark
1487    The Pseudo-Edward V (Lambert Simnel) crowned King of England, in Ireland
1568    Battle of Groningen: Dutch defeat the Spanish
1658    Battle of the Dunes: Anglo-French troops defeat the Spanish near Dunkirk
1689    Parliament guarantees freedom of religion, for Protestants
1764    James Otis coined the phrase "No taxation without representation!"
1818    Andrew Jackson illegally captures Pensacola from the Spanish, which is shortly returned
1822    Battle of Pichincha: Bolivar secures independence of Peru -- Learn More
1861    Alexandria, VA, occupied by Federal troops
1861    Benjamin Butler declares fugitive slaves Frank Baker, Shepard Mallory, & James Townsend "contraband of war"
1864    Gala reception welcoming the "14th Brooklyn" (84th New York Volunteers) home after three years of war
1871    The Paris Commune begins a massacre of Catholic clergy
1877    The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) meets Lillie Langtry
1883    The Brooklyn Bridge opens
1900    Britain annexes Orange Free State
1916    Britain introduces conscription
1916    Germans capture Ft. Douaumont, Verdun, from the French
1930    Amy Johnson becomes the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia
1939    The McCann Rescue Chamber saves 33 sailors from the sunken 'Squalus' (SS-192), the only time the device has ever been used
1941    Battle of the Denmark Straits: the 'Bismarck' sinks HMS 'Hood', 1,416 killed - only 3 survivors
1941    Italian troop transport 'Conte Rosso' is sunk by HM Submarine 'Upholder' in the Central Mediterranean, c. 1,200 die
1944    Enver Hoxha becomes head of Albanian anti-fascist movement
1944    US carrier aircraft raid Wake Island.
1958    Cuban President/Dictator Fulgencio Batista opens an offensive against Fidel Castro's rebels
1959    Pleasant Hills, Pa: first home with built-in bomb shelter exhibited
1962    Scott Carpenter goes into earth orbit aboard 'Aurora 7'
1980    Iran rejects a call by World Court to release US hostages
1989    French WW II war criminal Paul Touvier arrested in a monastery in Nice

15BC Germanicus Caesar, overrated general, brother to Claudius, father of Caligula, grandfather of Nero, d. AD 19 --
1524    Ottoman Sultan Selim II "the Drunkard" or "the Blond" (1556-1574)
1738    King George III (1760-1820)
1743    Jean-Paul Marat, French radical, who would meet Charlotte Corday in his bathtub in 1793
1751    King Charles Emanuel II of Sardinia (1796-1802)
1753    Oliver Cromwell, black American patriot, d. >1800
1803    Charles Bonaparte, son of Lucien, nephew of Napoleon, Prince of Canino & Musignano, d. 1854
1811    Charles Clark, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1877
1816    Emanuel Leutze, painter ("Washington Crossing the Delaware"), d. 1868
1816    Robert Seaman Granger, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1894
1819    Alexandrina Victoria, later Queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1837-1901), Empress of India (1876-1901) -- Learn More
1854    Louis Battenburg/Mountbatten, the Marquis of Milford Haven, British admiral, d. 1921
1870    Jan Smuts, Boer soldier, British Field Marshal, twice PM of South Africa, d. 1950
1905    Mikhail Sholokov, novelist ("And Quiet Flows the Don"), d. 1984
1921    The British Legion, now the Royal British Legion, formed by Great War veterans
1924    Jürgen Rohwer, sometime Kriegsmarine sailor, prolific naval historian (e.g., "The Critical Convoy Battles of March 1943," "Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939–1945"), d. 2015

1153    King St. David I of Scotland (1107-1153), at c. 68
1437    Bernardino della Carra, condottiero, who commanded 800 lances.
1670    Grand Duke Ferdinando II de' Medici of Tuscany (1621-1670), at 59
1792    Adm. Sir George Brydges Rodney, Baron Rodney, KB, 74 -- Learn More
1861    Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, 11th NY, shot at 24 by irate Reb James W. Jackson after pulling down a Confederate flag, Alexandria, Va
1861    James W. Jackson, 35-40, shot & bayoneted by irate Yank Francis E. Brownell after having shot Elmer Elsworth
1879    William Lloyd Garrison, abolitionist, at 73
1896    Conte Federico Luigi Menabrea, soldier, engineer, inventor, premier of Italy (1867-1869), at 86
1941    Vice Adm. Lancelot Holland (53) and c. 1,400 others, in his flagship, HMS 'Hood'
1950    Field Marshal Earl Wavell, Archibald Percival Wavell, 67 -- Learn More
1986    Lt Cdr Stephen D Thorne, astronaut, plane crash, at 33
1993    Cardinal Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo (65), Archbishop of Guadalajara, and six others, murdered
1995    Harold Wilson, Prime Minister (1964-70, 74-76), of cancer at 79
2004    Alberta Martin, 97, Civil War veteran's widow