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TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
4977BC The Creation, according to Kepler
630    Shahrbaraz becomes Persian Emperor (killed, June 9. 630)
1084    Robert the Weasel liberates Rome - and Pope Gregory VII - from Emperor Henry IV, amid great slaughter
1507    Genovese uprising against French occupation
1509    Pope Julius II excommunicates "The Most Serene Republic" of Venice
1528    Battle of Cape d'Orso: Franco-Genovese fleet crushes the Spanish
1773    British Parliament passes Tea Act, leading to the Boston Tea Party
1778    John Paul Jones begins a two-day raid on Whitehaven, U.K.
1799    Battle of Cassano: Russo-Austrians defeat the French
1813    Americans troops under Brig. Gen. Zebulon Pike capture Toronto
1849    Battle of Marghera: Austrians defeat Italian Nationalists in the Veneto
1857    Jews are prohibited from establishing congregations in Lower Austria
1861    The 7th NY Militia enters federal service at Washington.
1861    Col. Thomas J Jackson, CSA, assumes command at Harper's Ferry
1863    Streight's Raid: Tuscumbia to Cedar Bluff, AL
1865    Steamer 'Sultana' explodes in the Mississippi, c. 1,500 die, mostly Union soldiers recently released from Confederate P/W camps
1874    Racist "White League" formed in Grant Parish, Louisiana
1881    Pogroms against Russian Jews start in Elisabethgrad
1890    Battle of Barca: Italians defeat the Sudanese Mahdists
1897    Dedication of Grant's Tomb
1898    Matanzas, Cuba: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire
1909    Ouster of Ottoman Sultan & Caliph Abdul Hamid II of Turkey (1876-1909), in favor of Mehmed V (1909-1918)
1915    French Armored Cruiser 'Leon Gambetta' sunk in the Adriatic by the Austro-Hungarian submarine 'U-5', commanded by Korvettenkapitän Georg Ludwig Ritter von Trapp -- Learn More
1930    The Italian Navy launches five new warships: heavy cruisers 'Fiume' & 'Zara,' light cruisers 'Albert di Giussano' & 'Giovanni delle Bande Nere,' and submarine, 'Delfino.'
1940    Himmler orders establishment of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp
1941    German troops occupy Athens
1942    Nazis order Belgian Jews to wear yellow stars
1942    Stilwell proposes the formation of a Chinese army in India.
1943    Soviet Union breaks relations with Polish government-in-exile in London
1945    Allied warships begin 4-day bombardment of Tarakan Island, Borneo
1945    Italian partisans capture Mussolini and Clara Petacci, near Lake Como
1945    US Fifth Army liberates Genoa
1948    The Arab Legion attacks the Gesher Bridge on the Jordan River

BORN
1701    King Charles Emanuel I of Sardinia (1730-1773)
1737    Edward Gibbon, Captain of the Hampshire Grenadiers, historian of "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", d. 1794 -- Learn More
1770    Adm Sir Edward Codrington. GCB, Victor of Navarino, d. 1851
1822    Ulysses S Grant, general, 1861-1869, president 1869-1877, memoirist, d. 1885
1835    John Murray Corse, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1893
1848    Otto Wilhelm Luitpold Adalbert Waldemar von Wittelsbach, King Otto of Bavaria (1886-1913), deposed due to mental incapacity, d. 1916
1942    Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov, Russian cosmonaut

DIED
399BC Socrates, noted hoplite, stone cutter, busy-body, executed by poison, at c. 70
630    Shah Ardashir III of Persia (1123-1124), c. 9, murdered
1124    King Alexander I of Scotland (1107-24), c. 45
1404    Philip "the Bold" or "the Stout," 62, Duke of Burgundy (1363-1404), Count of Charolais (1390-1404)
1521    Ferdinand Magellan, 41, explorer, slain by the Filipinos
1682    Tsar Theodorus III (1676-82)
1694    Elector Johan Georg IV of Saxony (1691-94), at 25
1702    Jean Bart, 51, French naval hero
1792    Jacob Johan Anckarström (29), assassin of King Gustav III of Sweden, executed
1813    Zebulon M Pike, army officer and explorer, kia at 34
1881    Ludwig A Benedek, Austrian general who lost at Koniggratz, 76
1893    John Murray Corse, Brig. Gen, U.S., on his 58th birthday
1965    Edward R. Morrow, war correspondent, Cold Warrior, at 57
1974    Adm. Jesse Bartlett "Oley" Oldendorf, 87, who commanded at Surigao Strait