0    International Youth Day and World Elephant Day
0    Air Force Day and Railway Troops Day in Russia
0    Feast of Saint Euplius of Catania, Martyr, Co-Patron with Saint Agatha, of Catania
1071    Seljuk Turks inflicted a devastating defeat on the Byzantines in the Battle of Manzikert, capturing Emperor Romanus IV
1099    Battle of Ascalon: Crusaders defeat the Fatimids
1332    Battle of Dupplin Moor: Edward Valiol's English defeat King David of Scots
1499    First Naval Battle of Sapienza: Turks & Venetians clash
1553    Pope Julius III orders confiscation & burning of Jewish religious books
1554    Battle of Renty: Imperialists defeat the French
1645    The Massachusetts Council orders a third of the men in each militia company "be ready on half an hour's warning for any service" - the first "Minute Men"
1687    Battle of Harkany/Mohacs: Charles V of Lorraine routs the Turks
1744    Battle of Velletri II: Charles IV's Neapolitans defeat the Austrians
1759    Battle of Kunersdorf: Russo-Austrian forces almost defeat Frederick the Great
1762    The British captured Havana after a 40 day siege -- Learn More
1805    the Lewis & Clark Expedition crossed the Continental Divide
1806    Fra Diavolo landed near Salerno with 500 men, to initiate guerrilla operations against the French in support of the defense of Gaeta -- Learn More
1812    Battle of Gorodeczno: French and Austrians defeat the Russians
1812    USS 'Constitution' captures and destroys British brig 'Adeona'
1812    Wellington's troops enter Madrid
1831    The Dutch evacuated Belgium under French pressure -- Learn More
1862    John Hunt Morgan's Confederate raiders capture Gallatin, Tn
1898    US & Spanish troops skirmish at Aibonito Pass, Puerto Rico
1898    US Navy raids Manzanillo, Cuba
1898    US ships and Spanish batteries exchange fire at Santiago
1905    Pogrom at Bialystock, 36 Jews die
1914    Battle of Haelen: Belgian Carabineers temporarily halt German advance
1914    Great Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary
1927    Premiere of William Wellman's movie 'Wings', which would win the first 'Oscar' for best picture
1941    French Marshal Henri Petain gives full support to Nazi Germany
1942    German First Panzer Armee captures Elista, southeast of Stalingrad
1942    Guadalcanal: First US airplane reaches Henderson Field
1942    New Guinea: Japanese troops reach the crest of the Owen Stanley Mtns as a convoy lands reinforcements at Buna.
1942    U.S. destroyer-transports land supplies on Guadalcanal.
1943    Kiska: USAAF bombs and USN shells suspected Japanese positions
1943    The alleged "Philadelphia Experiment": The US Navy supposedly successfully "cloaks" the USS "USS Eldridge" (DE 173) -- or maybe in October.
1944    Normandy: PLUTO (pipeline under ocean) begins operating
1944    SS massacres hundreds of civilians at Sant'Anna di Stazzema, Tuscany
1945    Leaflets call for Japan to surrender or face "utter devastation."
1953    Soviet Union conducts secret hydrogen bomb test
1959    First firing of a Polaris missile from a ship, 'Observation Island'
1962    Russia launches Vostok 4, with Pavel Popovich, who lands safely Aug 15
1972    Last American ground troops leave Vietnam
1983    Manuel Noriega becomes commander of Panamanian Army

1503    King Christian III of Denmark & Norway (1534-59)
1762    King George IV of England (1820-30)
1819    Daniel Davidson Bidwell, Brig Gen, U.S., kia 1864
1829    John Horace Forney, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1902
1833    William Price Sanders, Brig Gen, U.S., kia 1863
1870    Hubert de la Poer Gough, British soldier, Commander, Fifth Army in the BEF, d. 1963
1904    The Tsarevich Aleksei of Russia, murdered, 1918
1909    Maurice Heath, air marshal, RAF, d. 1998

30BC Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt (51-30 BC), 39, asped
238    Roman co-Emperors (Mar 22-Aug 12, 138), Gordian II (c. 46), kia outside Carthage, and his father, Gordian I (c. 78), suicide at Carthage on hearing the news -- Learn More
1350    King Philip VI "the Fortunate" of France (1328-1350), c. 57
1484    Pope Sixtus IV - Francesco della Rovere (1471-1484), 70
1676    Metacom - "King Philip" - Sachem of the Wampanoag (1662-1676), shot by Colonial militiaman John Alderman, a "Praying Indian"
1811    Sir John Francis Edward Acton, 6th Baronet Acton, Tuscan admiral, Neapolitan Minister of War & Marine (1778-1804), at 75
1914    John Philip Holland, 74, Fenian, submarine designer
1935    MajGen Tetsuzan Nagata, 51, murdered in his headquarters by "Imperial Way" fanatic Lt Col Saburo Aizawa
1964    Ian Fleming, British officer and novelist ("James Bond"), at 56
1982    Henry Fonda, sometime naval officer, actor ("Mr. Roberts," etc.), at 77
1990    USAF SSGT John Campisi, struck by a truck - the first American to die in the Gulf War
2012    Joe Kubert, 86, sometme soldier, American cartoonist ("Sgt. Rock", "Hawkman", etc.)