by David J. Ulbrich
Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2011. Pp. xiv, 286.
Illus., maps, notes, biblio, index. $35.95. ISBN: 1591149037
The life and work of Thomas Holcomb, perhaps the most important U.S. Marine in the twentieth century.
Holcomb led the Marine Corps from the end of 1936 through 1943, but is today largely forgotten in accounts of World War II because of the fame attained by other Marines during the war, notably his successor, Alexander Vandegrift, who had commanded the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal and succeeded him as Commandant. Ulrich, an historian at the Army Engineer School and Norwich University, opens with a chapter on Holcomb’s early life, including his experiences on the Western Front in World War I. He then uses two chapters to examine Holcomb’s work as Commandant from December of 1936 through Pearl Harbor, when the Corps finalized its amphibious doctrine and began preparations for war. There follows a chapter on Holcomb’s role in mobilizing the Corps during the first seven months of the war, and then a chapter on Guadalcanal that has a rather unique slant, being rather more critical of Vandegrift and his campaign than is commonly found. We then get a chapter on Holcomb’s last 18 months as Commandant, followed by one one that wraps up his career, since he served through the end of the war as a recalled retiree doing staff work, and later undertook some diplomatic assignments until his final retirement. Ulrich clearly demonstrates how important Holcomb was to the creation of the Marine Corps that fought its way across the Pacific, battling over budgets and autonomy, identifying and developing new war fighting concepts, building the divisions that would fight the war, and overseeing operations through the end of 1943.
Preparing for Victory
is a very valuable look at how leadership can influence institutions, the process of reforming military organizations, and, of course, the creation of the modern Marine Corps.