Russia carried out a successful test launch
of a 31 year old SS-19 (RS-18 in
Russian) ICBM on October 22nd. Russia still has 130 (out of a 1980s peak of
360) SS-19s in service, and now expects to keep them active until 2010. The
test firings for the last two years have been successful, and other
quality-control tests have come back positive.
The 106 ton, 76 foot long missile uses
storable liquid fuel, meaning that the missile is inherently more complex than
a solid fuel missile. Russia was late to perfecting solid fuel rocket
technology. The SS-19 entered service in 1975, and it wasn't until the 1980s
that Russia began producing reliable solid fuel rocket motors, large enough for
ICBMs. The last SS-19s were manufactured in 1990, and Russia expects each of
them to have a useful life of 30 years. This is confirmed each year with the
The SS-19 (and a similar missile, the
SS-17) were developed as a "light" ICBM, in effect, a competitor for
the U.S. Minuteman series. The SS-18 was the first Russian ICBM to carry MIRV
(Multiple, Independent Reentry Vehicles). That means each warhead had its own
guidance system. The SS-19 carries six warheads, and has a range of 10,000
kilometers. The SS-19s are being replaced by the SS-27 (Topol-M), a solid fuel missile.
The current plan is to take some, or all, of the retired SS-19s and convert
them (by adding a third stage) to satellite launchers. This has already been
done, and the converted missile can lift 1.8 tons into orbit. Current
technology enables small satellites (as small as 200 pounds) to do useful work.
The civilianized SS-19s are perfect for launching these military states.
Russia is also extending the life of
its heavier SS-18 (RS-20) ICBMs to 30 years. This missile carries ten warheads.