In a largely symbolic, and otherwise meaningless non-aggression treaty. The last one (in 1950) failed to prevent a minor border war in 1969. This treaty basically recognizes Russia's dependence on the more robust Chinese economy. Many key Russian military industries are being kept alive mainly by Chinese orders. China and Russia insist that they are making a joint effort to prevent America from throwing its superpower weight around. The United States does not see the treaty as a threat.