December 12, 2020:
China has been developing several different types of armed UGV (unmanned ground vehicles) and is pulling ahead of other countries that have been at this sort of thing longer. After surveying troops and commanders, researchers found that the UGV most in demand was an inexpensive one that could perform very dangerous tasks like obstacle clearance and reconnaissance. This is not the first time Chinese researchers have sought to develop a UGV for troop use. Previous UGV designs were expensive and the Chinese military has a tight budget that cannot afford expensive, single use UGVs. That led to the using a common military vehicle and turn it into a UGV. The selected vehicle was one of many hummer clones produced in China. One used a lot by the military comes from Dongfeng Motors, which initially produced some hummers under license. Dongfeng has since produced a number of hummer variants, including armored models designed to accept an RWS (remote weapons stations). The chosen vehicle was one of many nicknamed Mengshi (“east wind warrior). The latest of these, the CSK-181 is an eight-ton armored hummer design similar to the new American JLTV (Joint Light Tactical Vehicle). One characteristic of the Chinese hummers is the built-in night vision cameras (one in front and one in the back with a flat-screen display for the driver to use) and satellite navigation system. Building on this the Chinese added proven lightweight sensors already used on other UGVs to turn a Mengshi 4x4 vehicle into a UGV armed with a RWS and additional sensors that would assist in reconnaissance and obstacle removal. This last task is dangerous because road obstacles are often surrounded by anti-vehicle mines and explosive traps in the obstacle itself. The latest models of the Mengshi vehicles have additional protection against mines, roadside bombs and explosive devices of all types. The RWS machine-gun can be used to fire into obstacle to see if there are explosive devices in it and high-rez vidcams can scrutinize the road and adjacent areas for bombs. The RWS machine-gun fire can neutralize suspected bombs by disabling or detonating them. This UGV activity will also reveal if the obstacle is augmented by enemy troops lying in wait with assault rifles and rocket launchers. You may still lose the UGV, but you won’t lose four or more troops that would be in a manned vehicle. The Chinese soldier of today is less expendable than in the past. These troops can operate a UGV remotely and it does wonders for morale to equip the troops with UGVs rather manned vehicles performing these recon and obstacle removal duties.
The Chinese military has been developing and using a growing a growing number of UGVs as well as USVs (unmanned surface vessels)/UUVs (unmanned underwater vessels) for the navy and unarmed UGVs for the missile forces that speed up the preparation of missiles for combat use. The air force found that the UGVs are more accurate in handling the missile components and lifting them into firing position. This is also safer than using troops to do it, who are slower and more prone to accidents that injure personnel and damage the missiles.
Unlike most Western nations the Chinese are not reticent about arming their UGVs and USVs. For example, one new UGV, the Mule 200, was recently developed for getting supplies to troops in an active combat zone. The half-ton armored vehicle runs on tracks and stores up to 200 kg (440 pounds) of supplies in an armored compartment. Mule 200 can also be equipped with a RWS armed with a 7.62 or 12.7mm machine-gun. The Mule 200 is remotely controlled and can move at up to 50 kilometers an hour on a road and less over even difficult terrain. The gasoline-electric engine can travel up to 50 kilometers before refueling. The cargo space can also be fitted with fuel tanks to more than double that range. The major shortcoming of the Mule 200 was cost and the additional maintenance support required for any tracked vehicle.
Another UGV, the Sharp Claw, was introduced in 2014 and is now some are in service with combat units. This UGV weighs 120 kg (264 pounds), is 70 cm (2.25 feet) long, 60 cm (two feet) tall, runs on tracks and is battery powered. Its primary use is reconnaissance in an active combat zone where there is a lot of enemy activity. Sharp Claw is protected against most bullets and equipped with enough sensors to operate autonomously and thus impervious to electronic jamming. It can be armed with a 7.62mm machine-gun that is active when operating autonomously. In other words, Sharp Claw can return fire when scouting under remote control and is thus better able to eliminate armed resistance as well as improve its chances of returning. The shortcoming of Sharp Claw is limited range and, as with older UGV designs, more extensive training for the operator. For the Mengshi UGV you have plenty of troops who know how to drive these vehicles. Since the current generation of Chinese troops were, like their Western counterparts, raised on video games, it is easier for them to master the remote-control aspects of a UGV
Sharp Claw can also act as a day and night sentinel in a combat zone while stationary. This provides a more reliable lookout to alert troops of an approaching enemy. There is also a one-ton unarmored 6x6 Sharp Claw 2 that has a large enough cargo bay to hold the smaller Sharp Claw. This wheeled Sharp Claw 2 can move at up to 30 kilometers an hour on roads or ten kilometers an hour over rough terrain. Sharp Claw can also be armed with a 30mm autocannon or anti-tank weapons. It is battery powered with four hours of endurance before a recharge or battery replacement is needed. Both Sharp Claw vehicles are designed for use at an active front line situation to speed up operations while keeping troop casualties down. The American experience in Iraq and Afghanistan has shown that this use of UGVs works and is good for morale. The Mengshi UGV can also be used for lookout duty. China makes no secret of its willingness to use armed UGVs operating autonomously. Initially that probably means that an armed UGV would fall back on some basic ROE (rules of engagement) to be carried out automatically if its wireless link with a human operator is lost. There could be a lot of variability in these ROE to prevent an enemy from exploiting them.
China has been working on ground combat UGVs for over a decade, encouraged and inspired by the American and Israeli experience. For example, in 2018 Chinese state TV broadcast a video of a soldier operating a T-59 (clone of Russian T-55) tank remotely. These autonomous/remotely controlled large (over a ton) UGVs are being developed worldwide. This is nothing unique as China has had armored vehicles operating autonomously since at least 2013 and has been energetically applying that technology to self-driving commercial vehicles. These are being tested on public roads with the objective of wide-scale use.
What China is also doing is developing self-driving routines for combat vehicles, so that one tank with a human crew could control several other UGV tanks operated by “combat AI (Artificial Intelligence)” software. There are many other possible applications and China intends to be first in this field. To that end, in 2016, the Chinese military conducted a competition between commercial, military and academic autonomous vehicle designers to see who had the most impressive designs and be awarded a cash prize. China is known to be making much progress in AI but has not released a lot of details of how this would be applied to autonomous vehicles.
Israel was and still is a leader in UAV, UGV, AUV and USV design and development for years and applied the tech to vehicles offered for export. China saw Israel as the most formidable competitor in this field and has followed Israeli developments closely. This was especially the case with military and security UGVs. In mid-2016 China was particularly interested when an Israeli firm introduced yet another in a long-line of new UGVs. This one was called RoBattle, a seven-ton vehicle that can carry up to three tons of sensors, weapons and other accessories, like robotic arms. RoBattle is a 6x6 vehicle with independent suspension so that it can move off-road with nearly as much agility as a tracked vehicle. RoBattle is designed to be equipped with numerous combinations of accessories designed to be quickly added or removed. Like earlier UGVs RoBattle can patrol roads or cross-country or remain unattended for up to twelve hours at a time in sentinel or ambush mode. RoBattle takes advantage of the development of better vehicle navigation sensors that enable it to not only move autonomously on roads but also off-road. Obstacles are automatically avoided or a human operator is alerted to intervene remotely for unusual situations (like an obstacle difficult to get over or around, or being fired on).
RoBattle is not revolutionary, but evolutionary. You could see it coming since the late 1990s. In 2006, after a decade of development, an Israeli firm produced a robotic vehicle based on the two-seater all-terrain "TomCar" vehicle. Called AvantGuard, the robotic vehicle used sensors and software that enabled it to patrol along planned routes, and was capable of some cross-country operation as well. The designers knew that improved sensors, software and computers would improve capabilities. The AvantGuard mounted a RWS turret equipped with a 7.62mm machine-gun. The vehicle had digital cameras facing every direction and used pattern recognition to identify potential threats, like people sneaking around where they are not supposed to be, or obstacles on the road. The idea was that a pair of human operators could control a dozen or more AvantGuard vehicles. This system was particularly effective at night because it had night vision and moved quietly. Weighing only 1.3 tons, the AvantGuard was protected against rifle fire and fragments from shells and smaller roadside bombs. AvantGuard proved adequate for guarding industrial parks, but not the vast stretches of Negev desert, along the border with Gaza. Too many things could go wrong out in the desert (obstacles in the road, hostile action) that AvantGuard could not handle.
AvantGuard was followed in 2008 by Guardium, which built on AvantGuard tech and used the same TomCar vehicle with a remote control turret. Guardium has better sensors and software. Guardium was pitched as "smart" enough to be used in urban areas and to serve as an emergency response vehicle. That is, these would be stationed along isolated stretches of the border, ready to drive off to deal with any terrorists who had gotten through the fence. The Guardium would thus arrive before a human quick reaction team, which would be stationed farther away. Guardium is still in service with the Israeli military.
Other nations have been developing their own armed UGVs. In 2014 Russia joined the United States and Israel and began using robotic vehicles to help guard ballistic missile bases. Before that several Russian manufacturers were offering small remotely controlled or autonomous robotic vehicles for dealing with bombs or patrolling hazardous areas and detecting radiation. These were found useful by police and military bomb disposal teams, especially when providing security around Cold War era sites that were contaminated by high radiation levels. The most widely known one in the west is Chernobyl but there are several others that were never publicized and some that were actual secrets outside Russia until the Cold War ended. Russia had a major incentive to design and build devices competitive with those produced in the United States, Israel, South Korea and a few other countries. Chinese manufacturers have been offering UGVs to compete with the Israeli models, which have the advantage of being “combat proven” because of their use to patrol volatile borders (like Gaza). China has another advantage in that they will sell advanced military tech to just about anyone who can pay, if only to get the stuff some combat experience. China plays the long game and sees the point where their latest UGV tech is kept at home as being close, but still a decade or more away. This is one reason why China is putting so much effort into developing more effective AI (artificial intelligence) software. That, plus the Chinese willingness to arm UGVs and let them operate autonomously makes future Chinese combat UGVs a scary possibility.