@ The Pentagon knows it is going to get major infusions of cash, and the generals and admirals are already putting down markers. They want more training, more troops, and more new weapons. They particularly want to pay down the huge maintenance shortfalls of the Clinton years and build up the ammunition stockpile. But these things will take time and, even with lots of extra money, there won't be significant differences for a year or two.
@ The biggest problem is "low density, high demand" units. The low-density part means we never bought enough of them, and the high demand part means we're using everything we have at the limit of its endurance. Such units include special forces, intelligence gathering and processing, air transports, and unmanned recon drones. --Stephen V Cole
The Pentagon is gearing up for another strategic review, and is determined to get what it wants (and to get out of what it doesn't want). There are (barely) enough troops today for the missions being conducted, but no surplus to speak of for emergencies in unexpected regions. Some key points: