The U.S. Department of Defense has been energetic, and successful, in maintaining the strength (2.5 million troops) of an all-volunteer force during wartime. While more money, for bonuses, equipment and other benefits, has been the biggest factor, no opportunity, no matter how small, has gone unused. For example, every year, a hundred or so troops are faced with involuntary discharge because of openly homosexual behavior. Troops faced with this can appeal, and over the last few years, more of them have been allowed to stay in. Thus, last year, 36 troops were allowed to remain in uniform. This was 30 percent of those who appealed. In 2004, 22 troops (18 percent of those who appealed) kept their jobs, compared to 12 in 2003 (11 percent of those who appealed).