CIC 474

Past Issues
CIC 473
CIC 472
CIC 471
CIC 470
CIC 469
CIC 468
CIC 467
CIC 466
CIC 465
CIC 464
CIC 463
CIC 462
CIC 461
CIC 460
CIC 459
CIC 458
CIC 457
CIC 456
CIC 455
CIC 454
CIC 453
CIC 452
CIC 451
CIC 450
CIC 449
CIC 448
CIC 447
CIC 446
CIC 445
CIC 444
CIC 443
CIC 442
CIC 441
CIC 440
CIC 439
CIC 438
CIC 437
CIC 436
CIC 435
CIC 434
CIC 433
CIC 432
CIC 431
CIC 430
CIC 429
CIC 428
CIC 427
CIC 426
CIC 425
CIC 424
CIC 423
CIC 422
CIC 421
CIC 420
CIC 419
CIC 418
CIC 417
CIC 416
CIC 415
CIC 414
CIC 413
CIC 412
CIC 411
CIC 410
CIC 409
CIC 408
CIC 407
CIC 406
CIC 405
CIC 404
CIC 403
CIC 402
CIC 401
CIC 400
CIC 399
CIC 398
CIC 397
CIC 396
CIC 395
CIC 394
CIC 393
CIC 392
CIC 391
CIC 390
CIC 389
CIC 388
CIC 387
CIC 386
CIC 385
CIC 384
CIC 383
CIC 382
CIC 381
CIC 380
CIC 379
CIC 378
CIC 377
CIC 375
CIC 374
CIC 373
CIC 372
CIC 371
CIC 370
CIC 369
CIC 368
CIC 367
CIC 366
CIC 365
CIC 364
CIC 363
CIC 362
CIC 361
CIC 360
CIC 359
CIC 358
CIC 357
CIC 356
CIC 355
CIC 354
CIC 353
CIC 352
CIC 351
CIC 350
CIC 349
CIC 348
CIC 347
CIC 346
CIC 345
CIC 344
CIC 343
CIC 342
CIC 341
CIC 340
CIC 339
CIC 338
CIC 337
CIC 336
CIC 335
CIC 334
CIC 333
CIC 332
CIC 331
CIC 330
CIC 329
CIC 328
CIC 327
CIC 326
CIC 325
CIC 324
CIC 323
CIC 322
CIC 321
CIC 320
CIC 319
CIC 318
CIC 317
CIC 316
CIC 315
CIC 314
CIC 313
CIC 312
CIC 311
CIC 310
CIC 309
CIC 308
CIC 307
CIC 306
CIC 305
CIC 304
CIC 303
CIC 302
CIC 301
CIC 300
CIC 299
CIC 298
CIC 297
CIC 296
CIC 295
CIC 294
CIC 293
CIC 292
CIC 291
CIC 290
CIC 289
CIC 288
CIC 287
CIC 286
CIC 285
CIC 284
CIC 283
CIC 282
CIC 281
CIC 280
CIC 279
CIC 278
CIC 277
CIC 276
CIC 275
CIC 274
CIC 273
CIC 272
CIC 271
CIC 270
CIC 269
CIC 268
CIC 267
CIC 266
CIC 265
CIC 264
CIC 263
CIC 262
CIC 261
CIC 260
CIC 259
CIC 258
CIC 257
CIC 256
CIC 255
CIC 254
CIC 253
CIC 252
CIC 251
CIC 250
CIC 249
CIC 248
CIC 247
CIC 246
CIC 245
CIC 244
CIC 243
CIC 242
CIC 241
CIC 240
CIC 239
CIC 238
CIC 237
CIC 236
CIC 235
CIC 234
CIC 233
CIC 232
CIC 231
CIC 230
CIC 229
CIC 228
CIC 227
CIC 226
CIC 225
CIC 224
CIC 223
CIC 222
CIC 221
CIC 220
CIC 219
CIC 218
CIC 217
CIC 216
CIC 215
CIC 214
CIC 213
CIC 212
CIC 211
CIC 210
CIC 209
CIC 208
CIC 207
CIC 206
CIC 205
CIC 204
CIC 203
CIC 202
CIC 201
CIC 200
CIC 199
CIC 198
CIC 197
CIC 196
CIC 195
CIC 194
CIC 193
CIC 192
CIC 191
CIC 190
CIC 189
CIC 188
CIC 187
CIC 186
CIC 185
CIC 184
CIC 183
CIC 182
CIC 181
CIC 180
CIC 179
CIC 178
CIC 177
CIC 176
CIC 175
CIC 174
CIC 173
CIC 172
CIC 171
CIC 170
CIC 169
CIC 168
CIC 167
CIC 166
CIC 165
CIC 164
CIC 163
CIC 162
CIC 161
CIC 160
CIC 159
CIC 158
CIC 157
CIC 156
CIC 155
CIC 154
CIC 153
CIC 152
CIC 151
CIC 150
CIC 149
CIC 148
CIC 147
CIC 146
CIC 145
CIC 144
CIC 143
CIC 142
CIC 141
CIC 140
CIC 139
CIC 138
CIC 137
CIC 136
CIC 135
CIC 134
CIC 133
CIC 132
CIC 131
CIC 130
CIC 129
CIC 128
CIC 127
CIC 126
CIC 125
CIC 124
CIC 123
CIC 122
CIC 121
CIC 120
CIC 119
CIC 118
CIC 117
CIC 116
CIC 115
CIC 114
CIC 113
CIC 112
CIC 111
CIC 110
CIC 109
CIC 108
CIC 107
CIC 106
CIC 105
CIC 104
CIC 103
CIC 102
CIC 101
CIC 100
CIC 99
CIC 98
CIC 97
CIC 96
CIC 95
CIC 94
CIC 93
CIC 92
CIC 91
CIC 90
CIC 89
CIC 88
CIC 87
CIC 86
CIC 85
CIC 84
CIC 83
CIC 82
CIC 81
CIC 80
CIC 79
CIC 78
CIC 77
CIC 76
CIC 75
CIC 74
CIC 73
CIC 72
CIC 71
CIC 70
CIC 69
CIC 68
CIC 67
CIC 66
CIC 65
CIC 64
CIC 63
CIC 62
CIC 61
CIC 60
CIC 59
CIC 58
CIC 57
CIC 56
CIC 55
CIC 54
CIC 53
CIC 52
CIC 51
CIC 50
CIC 49
CIC 48
CIC 47
CIC 46
CIC 45
CIC 44
CIC 43
CIC 42
CIC 41
CIC 40
CIC 39
CIC 38
CIC 37
CIC 36
CIC 35
CIC 34
CIC 33
CIC 32
CIC 31
CIC 30
CIC 29
CIC 28
CIC 27
CIC 26
CIC 25
CIC 24
CIC 23
CIC 22
CIC 21
CIC 20
CIC 19
CIC 18
CIC 17
CIC 16
CIC 15
CIC 14
CIC 13
CIC 12
CIC 11
CIC 10
CIC 9
CIC 8
CIC 7
CIC 6
CIC 5
CIC 4
CIC 3
CIC 2
CIC 1

Allied Wartime Summit Conferences

Down the ages heads of state or senior officials of different countries have sometimes come together to confer on some important matter, usually to form an alliance or to make a peace. Given the difficulties of communications and travel, these were quite rare, and so rather celebrated, such as “The Field of the Cloth of Gold” (June 7-24, 1520), when King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France met to promote friendly ties between their countries, or the “Congress of Vienna” (September 1814-June 1815), attended by a host of sovereigns, foreign ministers, field marshals, and such, to settle the affairs of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon. With the Twentieth Century, summits became more common, given the advent of rail roads and steamships, and still later airplanes. During the First World War, Allied leaders met several times, usually in Paris, but it was during the Second World War that summit meetings became almost commonplace, particularly among the Allied leaders, as they attempted to plan political and military strategy, and the post-war world.

Date Code Name Place Participants
Aug 41 Riviera Argentia Bay FDR, Churchill
Dec 41-Jan 42 Arcadia Washington FDR, Churchill
Jun 42 Argonaut Washington FDR, Churchill
Aug 42 --- Moscow Churchill, Stalin
Jan 43 Symbol Casablanca FDR, Churchill, Giraud, de Gaulle
May 43 Trident Washington FDR, Churchill
Aug 43 Quadrant Quebec FDR, Mackenzie King, Churchill,
Nov 43 Sextant Cairo FDR, Churchill, Chiang
Nov-Dec 43 Eureka Teheran FDR, Churchill, Stalin
Sep 44 Octagon Quebec FDR, Mackenzie King, Churchill,
Oct 44 Tolstoy Moscow Churchill, Stalin
Jan 45 Cricket Malta FDR, Churchill
Feb 45 Argonaut Yalta FDR, Churchill, Stalin
Jul-Aug 45 Terminal Potsdam Truman, Churchill then Atlee, Stalin

The pivotal actor in the Allied summits was Winston Churchill, who, despite being the oldest of the “Big Three” (b. 1874) did more traveling during the war than both Roosevelt (b. 1882), hampered by his limited mobility and the vagaries of American law (remember, he has to sign or veto bills) and Stalin (b. 1878), who was afraid of flying and unwilling to go anyplace the Red Army didn’t control.

The top-level summits included meetings involving combinations of Churchill, FDR, and Stalin, plus occasional other actors: Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud of France, William Lyon Mackenzie King of Canada, Chaing Kai-Shek of China, as well as Harry S Truman, who succeeded Roosevelt as President, and Clement Atlee, who succeeded Churchill as Prime Minister. In addition to the summits, there were frequent meetings in which one of the Big Three met with the foreign ministers or personal representatives of one or both of his colleagues or with other Allied leaders. For example, senior American and British officials met with Stalin in Moscow for a few days in September-October of 1941 to brief him on the Atlantic Charter, which concluded the summit at Argentia Bay, and again in October-November 1943, when they were joined by the Chinese foreign minister. There were also “regional” summits, such as the Rio Conference in January 1942 and a Commonwealth summit in London in May of 1944.

 

"Kit" Wykeham-Musgrave has a Lucky Day

On the morning of September 22, 1914, Wenman Wykeham-Musgrave (1899-1989) was a 15 year old midshipman serving aboard the 12,000 ton armored cruiser HMS Aboukir, which with several of her sister ships was on patrol in the Broad Fourteens, a part of the North Sea off the Dutch coast noted for its surprisingly even bottom at 14 fathoms.

The three ships were steaming in line ahead at 10 knots, with lookouts posted, but not zigzagging, as this tactics had not yet become routine.  At 6:00 am the cruisers were spotted by the German submarine U-9, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Weddigen, which was riding on the surface at some distance.  Identifying the vessels as British warships, Weddigen submerged, and approached.

Having gotten to about 550 yards from the Aboukir, at about 6:20 Weddigen fired one torpedo at her, which broke her back, and she began sinking slowly.  Aboukir’s crew abandoned ship, and her sister ships, Hogue and Cressy, thinking she had struck a mine, approached to rescue survivors.  Among these was “Kit” Wykeham-Musgrave, who was uninjured and managed to swim to the Hogue as his own ship went down.

As Wykeham-Musgrave was clambering aboard the Hogue, at about 7:00, Weddigen had brought U-9 to the surface, in the midst of the British ships.  From about 300 yards he fired two torpedoes into the Hogue, which began to sink rather quickly.   Once again uninjured, Wykeham-Musgrave managed to swim to HMS Cressy. 

By this time, Cressy’s skipper, spotting U-9, opened fire on her and attempted to ram, while the U-boot fired several torpedoes back at her.  One of Weddigen’s torpedoes struck the cruiser at 7:15, and second at 7:30, causing her to capsize.  Shortly before 8:00 am all three British cruisers had gone under. 

Meanwhile, “Kit” Wykeham-Musgrave, again uninjured, once more took the water, and managed to find a piece of wood to cling to.  Some hours later he was picked up by a Dutch fishing vessel.  He was one of 837 survivors, 1,459 officers and men having perished with the three ships.

Weddigen and U-9 proceeded to Germany, where they would receive a hero’s welcome, with an Iron Cross First Class for the captain and Second Class for everyone else. 

After returning to duty, Wykeham-Musgrave was assigned to the battleship HMS Vanguard.  He served in Vanguard nearly three years, seeing action in the Battle of Jutland (May 31- June 1, 1916).  Early in July, 1917, Wykeham-Musgrave went on leave.   On July 9th, Vanguard, then lying at Scapa Flow, experienced a magazine explosion, totally wrecking the ship and killing 804 of her crew.

Widely considered one of the luckiest man in the Royal Navy,  Wykeham-Musgrave then served in the battlecruiser Inflexible.  After the war, he served in submarines until he retired in 1929.

Recalled to duty as a commander for World War II, “Kit” Wykeham-Musgrave served through to the end of the war, certainly one of the luckiest men in the history of the Royal Navy.

 


© 1998 - 2019 StrategyWorld.com. All rights Reserved.
StrategyWorld.com, StrategyPage.com, FYEO, For Your Eyes Only and Al Nofi's CIC are all trademarks of StrategyWorld.com
Privacy Policy